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Ne One Shilling Net, : * or 25 Cents. ay) LIBRARY ED

eT HE ° APR 95 1911

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VETERINAR JOURNAL?

A Monthly Review of Veterinary Science.

PRO ry

Editors for Great Britain and Ireland :— FREDERICK HOBDAY, F.R.C.V.S., F.R.S.E.,

FORMERLY PROFESSOR IN THE ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE, LONDON.

GEO. H. WOOLDRIDGE, F.R.C.V.S., M:R.I.A.,

PROFESSOR OF HYGIENE, MATERIA MEDICA AND THERAPEU'NCS IN THE ROYAL VETERINARY COLLEGE, LONDON.

Editor for Austraiasia :— J. A. GILRUTH, D.V.Sc., M.R.C.V.S., F.R.S.E.,

DEAN OF THE VETERINARY FACULTY, UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA.

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CONTENTS.

Thomas Drummond Lambert F.R.C.V.S. Death of Professor Arloing wv. f

EDITORIALS— The Common Channel of Infection in Tuberculosis

The Veterinary Surgeons Act (1881) Amendment Bill . 196

The Common Method of Infection in Human and Bovine Tuberculosis, Professor Sir JOHN McFapyEan, M.B., B.Sc., LL.D., M.R.C.V.S.__.,. 197

Acute Contagious Mastitis in Cows due to the Bacillus Lactis Aerogenes. By . A, GILRUTH, et M,.R.C.V.S., F.R.S. a and NORMAN Mac- DONALD, B.V. Se. oo mer BNA. By W. Srap.ry, M. D., D. v. Se,, ™M. R. C. VS... . 2-7

Association of Veterinary Officers of Health . 226

YP the co ARTICLES— is, By

CLINICAL ARTICLES— Use of Chloral Hydrate in Fistula. By R. FERGUSON STIRLING, M.R.C.V.S. 227 Specific Coronitis, By E. S. GILLETT, M.R.C.V.S._... whe eet -. 228 A Lame Case. By G. MAYALL, M.R.C.V.S. Ga ; . 233 Lumbar Paralysis ina Cow. By G. MAYALL, M.R.C. v. s. sal hee st O00 Acephalian Monstrosity, By A. C. DuNCAN, M.R.C.V,S. Metro-Peritonitis ina Mare. By R, FERGUSON STIRLING po

(Continued on p. xiit.)

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ek CON TEN TS—continued, PAGE CANINE AND FELINE CLINICALS— Tuberculosis in the Dog. By E. WALLIs Hoarg, F.R.C.V.S, aod »-« 236 A Case of Choking from an Unusual Cause... By E. WALLIs mee F.R.C.V.S. . 237 Phlegm in the Throat an Chronic Seat. “By G. ‘Mevetts M. R. Cc. v. s. osqs 839 Rupture of the Kidney ina Cat. By A. C. Duncan, M.R.C.V.S. ... w+: 239 Acute Rheumatism in a Fox-Terrier. By G. MAYALL, M.R.C.V.S. ... ... 240 TRACTS— Fowl Spirochztosis. By WALTER JOWETT, F.R.C.V.S., D.V.H.Liv. ++» 240

By J. D. F. Gitcurist, M.A., D.Sc. MISCELLANEOUS TRANSLATIONS—

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The Intermediate Host of the Liver Fluke Diéstoma betaaiassiay tia

Death from Lightning Stroke. By A. TAPKEN . - ea nee Ps A Case of Epilepsy. By Chief Veterinary-Surgeon Gecsme .. . 253 Thrush in Pigs and ao~guuepcene Oidian a ‘By | Professor

Roaring Due to a Tracheal Senicine. By Kasemacet We eee 608 re eS A Case of Botryomycosis of the Mammez ina Filly. By CuNy and AUGER 256

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TIIOMAS DRUMMOND LAMBERT, F.R.C.V.S. Born 1837.--Died 1911.

THE

VETERINARY JOURNAL

APRIL, t1g11.

THOMAS DRUMMOND LAMBERT, F.R.C.V.S. 1837—I9I1I.

Memsers of the veterinary profession will be very sorry to hear of the death of Mr. T. D. Lambert, Senior, which occurred at his residence at Rathmines, Dublin, on March 25, in his 74th year. Mr. Lambert’s health had been failing ever since he met with a serious accident in May of last year, in which he sus- tained a broken thigh. He was one of the most prominent and most highly-esteemed members of his profession in Ireland, and his astute professional ability and his general kindliness to all with whom he was brought into contact made him at once respected and beloved by all.

Mr. T. D. Lambert studied at Edinburgh, and in 1859 he obtained the Veterinary Certificate of the Highland Agricultural Society. He graduated as a member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons in 1867. After settling down in practice in Dublin he was elected to his Fellowship in 1877. In 1894 he became a Member of the Council of the Royal Col- lege of Veterinary Surgeons, of which body he became a vice-president. He was a very familiar figure at the great horse shows of the Royal Dublin Society, where he officiated as veterinary surgeon ever since 1869. For some years he was veterinary inspector for the Royal Commission on Horse- breeding. He was eight times president of the Veterinary Medi- cal Association of Ireland, and at the time of his death he was

a governor of the Royal Veterinary College of Ireland. Mr.

13

194 The Veterinary $ournad.

Lambert successively held the appointments of veterinary sur- geon to Queen Victoria, to King Edward VII, and to King George V. During the last visit of Edward VII to Ireland, Mr. Lambert was summoned to the Viceregal Lodge, where the late King presented him with a beautiful diamond and ruby scarf- pin. Mr. Lambert frequently took part in the sport of the Turf, running horses for some years at the principal Irish race meet- ings, while his old grey jumper was for years a prominent figure in the prize lists in the jumping competitions at the Ballsbridge shows.

Mr. Lambert leaves a widow, two daughters, arid four sons, two of the latter being members of the same profession which

their father adorned.

DEATH OF PROFESSOR ARLOING. ALL British veterinarians will be very sorry to hear of the death of Prof. Arloing, the famous bacteriologist, and director of the veterinary college at Lyons, which took place on March 21, 1911.

We hope to refer to this great scientist again in our next issue.

195

_ Kditorials.

THE COMMON CHANNEL OF INFECTION IN TUBERCULOSIS.

In this issue of the VETERINARY JOURNAL we reproduce a very able address on the above subject by Sir John McFadyean, and we commend it to the very careful perusal of all our readers.

In the olden days tuberculosis was regarded as being almost invariably hereditary in origin. This theory was knocked on the head by the discovery of the Bacillus tuberculosis by Koch and the investigations of Bang. Subsequently, based on the common seat of the lesions, inhalation was generally and reasonably regarded as being the principal method of infection. A few years ago, however, Von Behring, Calmette and Guérin and others advanced, and sought to prove, that infection was nearly always by way of the alimentary tract. The evidence for and against these theories is carefully sifted by McFadyean, who concludes that inhalation is the commonest natural method of infection.

This is based partly on the fact that of those cases where the disease affects only one of the two great body cavities 70 per cent. are thoracic, and partly on the results of experiments by which it was shown that inhaled tubercle bacilli would easily induce pulmonary tuberculosis. Moreover it is shown by those experiments that the minimum amount of infective material capable of producing the disease by inspiration is infinitely less than that required to produce the disease by ingestion.

We do not observe, however, that any notice has been taken of the important fact that in the inhalation experiments the material was given in a spray of water, while in natural cases some degree of desic- cation of tubercular sputum or expectorate occurs before the infective material is inhaled, and that desiccation and exposure to sunlight both very materially reduce the virulence of the organisms. Hence natural infection is probably not so easy as experimental infection.

Of course it is not denied that thoracic tuberculosis may occur after infection by the alimentary tract, but when it does it is probably always secondary to abdominal tuberculosis. Similarly abdominal tuberculosis may follow primary thoracic tuberculosis either by way of the lymphatics, or by the swallowing of material carried from the

lungs into the pharynx.

hil i a

196 The Veterinary $ournal.

The main issue, however, must not be missed. In infants and calves the abdominal form of the disease is predominant, and in those cases ingestion is the common method of infection. In adults (men and cattle) tuberculosis is more frequent than in young owing to the greater possibility of exposure to infection, and the primary thoracic form is the most common. Thus it will be seen that infection by either channel is all too frequent, and it behoves us to spare no effort to diminish the chances of infection by either channel.

Sir J. McFadyean’s analysis of the available evidence is very opportune, for there was some danger of relaxation of precautions against infection by inhalation, which he regards as the most common channel. It also emphasizes the fact that although the bovine origin of tuberculosis of mankind by ingestion is all too serious, yet danger of infection from human sources by inhalation is even more serious, We must sfop the sale of all tuberculous foods, milk and meat, and we should insist on compulsory notification of phthisis so that some form of protection can be instituted against the phthisical patient.

THE VETERINARY SURGEONS ACT (1881) AMENDMENT \BILL.

THE above much discussed Bill has been introduced into Parliament. It was presented by Sir Frederick Low, supported by Mr. Hayes Fisher and Captain Jessel, and read a first time. It has been shorn of practically all its contentious matter, and has now three principal sections. The most important, of course, is to institute the payment of an annual fee by Members of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons practising in the United Kingdom. The others are to bring existing practitioners under the discipline of the R.C.V.S., and to make companies liable for offences the same as individuals.

The working expenses of the Royal College have for some time exceeded the income, and the invested capital is being drawn upon. Obviously that procedure cannot last long, and we sincerely trust that the Bill will become law. It is ordered to be brought for second reading towards the end of May.

It is gratifying from one point of view to note that some voluntary subscriptions are being forwarded to the Royal College to help to prevent disaster, but although appreciating very highly the sentiments of the donors, the wisdom of the procedure is somewhat doubtful. It

Human and Bovine Tuberculosis 197

is a striking commentary, however, on the attitude of those who so strongly urged the institution of a voluntary subscription instead of a

compulsory one, that their names are conspicuously absent from the °

subscription list. One would naturally have expected them to be amongst the first to contribute voluntarily. It is a deplorable state of affairs for the body corporate to be reduced to, and we hope it will soon be remedied.

General Hrticles.

THE COMMON METHOD OF INFECTION IN HUMAN AND BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS.*

By Prorgssor Sir JOHN McFADYEAN, M.B., B.Sc., LL.D., M.R.C.‘’.S.,

ladexed 8. A. |. Principal of the Royal Veterinary College, London.

THE subject which I have chosen for my address is one about which opinions are still far from unanimous, but I hope to be able to show that the available evidence is sufficient to guide one to a tolerably confident conclusion regarding the matter in dispute.

It is not necessary in this connection to discuss the methods of infection which are on all hands admitted to be comparatively rare, such as infection through the skin or the mucous membrane of the genital tract, or the direct admission of tubercle bacilli into the mammary glands. The matter in dispute is narrowed down to the question of the relative frequency of infection by inhalation and infection by ingestion.

The evidence on which the matter may be decided falls under three heads :

(1) The most frequent seats of primary lesions in natural cases of tuberculosis.

(2) The relative ease with which animals may be experiment- ally infected by causing them to inhale or to swallow tubercle bacilli and the distribution of the lesions in animals so infected.

(3) The results of experimental attempts to introduce minute

* The Presidential Address to the Section of Comparative Pathology and Veterinary Ilygiene of the Birkenhead Congress of the Royal Institute of Public Health, rg1o.

198 The Veterinary Fournad.

inanimate particles, such as carbon, carmine, &c., into the lungs by inhalation or ingestion (pulmonary anthracosis).

(1) THe Most Common Seats OF Primary LEsIons.

Fortunately the facts in this connection are generally accepted, though opinions are sharply divided regarding the interpretation of them. In cattle and in man it is incontestable that in the great majority of cases of natural tuberculosis the primary lesions are intra-thoracic. Probably in not less than 70 per cent. of the cases in which the disease is still limited to one of. the great body cavities in these species, the lesions are confined to the thoracic lymphatic glands or to these and the lungs. It was recognition of this fact which first suggested that inhalation of bacilli must be the common method of infection. The inference appeared to be natural and proper, because, in the absence of evidence to show that bacilli suspended in the respired air could not reach the pulmonary alveoli, the hypothesis was the simplest one capable of accounting for the observed facts. From the time when Koch’s researches placed the etiology of tuberculosis on a sound basis until a few years ago, the view that inhalation was the common cause of pulmonary tuberculosis in man and cattle was accord- ingly the dominant one. In 1903 Von Behring expressed dissent from this opinion, and put forward the view that pulmonary tuberculosis in man is usually the result of intestinal infection and is generally contracted during early life. Two years later Cal- mette and Guérin espoused Von Behring’s suggestion with regard to the common channel of infection, but repudiated the view that the disease which manifests itself during adult life is the belated result of infection during childhood. What may be called the ingestion theory of tuberculous infection undoubtedly owes whatever measure of acceptance it at present enjoys to the writings of Calmette and his school. The reasons which were advanced by them in support of the theory will be examined pre- sently, and at the moment it need only be said that these did not include a denial that the primary macroscopic lesions in cases of natural tuberculosis are in the majority of cases intra-thoracic. That fact is apparently admitted by them, but the view which they endeavour to controvert is that the bacilli which are the cause of primary pulmonary tuberculosis generally reach the lungs directly—that is to say, with the inhaled air.

Human and Bovine Tuberculosis. 199

(2) THe Retative Ease witH WHICH ANIMALS MAY BE EXPERI- MENTALLY INFECTED BY CAUSING THEM TO INHALE OR TO SWALLow TUBERCLE BACILLI, AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE LESIONS IN ANIMALS SO INFECTED.

Before proceeding to examine the evidence under this head it is important to take particular note of the problem which has to be solved. This is necessary because some authors appear to have misapprehended it. As previously stated, it is not disputed that there are many cases in man and animals in which macro- scopically distinct tuberculous lesions are found in the lungs and thoracic lymphatic glands without the presence of any such lesions in the abdomen or elsewhere. The question which has now to be discussed, therefore, is not whether intrathoracic lesions can be produced experimentally by feeding, but whether lesions confined to the thoracic organs can beset up experiment- ally by inhalation or by ingestion.

As far as can be gathered from their writings, Calmette and his school maintain that it is difficult to the point of impossibility to produce pulmonary tuberculosis by causing animals to inhale tubercle bacilli, although they do not appear to have made any considerable number of experiments bearing on the point them- selves. In criticizing experiments of that kind by others they suggest that when positive results have been obtained these ought to be ascribed not to bacilli that have reached the pulmonary alveoli directly, but to the more or less accidental deglutition of bacilli during the course of the experiment and subsequent trans- port of those to the lung by way of the lymphatic vessels after absorption from the intestine. They also describe experiments of which the results are held to prove that it is comparatively easy to infect animals by feeding and to set up a pulmonary tuber- culosis in that way.

Although the first paper* published by Calmette and Guérin is headed ‘‘ The Intestinal Origin of Pulmonary Tuberculosis,”’ the majority of the experiments described in it do not appear to have any bearing on the question which we are now considering—viz., whether a tuberculosis with the visible lesions confined to the thorax can be set up by causing animals to swallow tubercle bacilli. I therefore pass over the experiments in which an attempt was made to infect goats with tubercle bacilli of the

* Annales de l'Institut Pasteur, 1905, p. 601.

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200 The Veterinary $ournat.

human and avian types and with Timothy grass bacilli, and I shall summarize only those in which bovine tubercle bacilli were used.

A female goat at an advanced stage of pregnancy was experi- mentally infected by injecting part of a culture of bovine tubercle bacilli through the teat canals, and when parturition occurred the two kids were allowed to suck the milk from the infected udder. One of them was killed forty-five days after birth, and the post- mortem examination revealed intense lymphadenitis involving all the mesenteric glands and those situated along the curvature of the stomach. On section the cortical substance of these glands was found to be crammed with a multitude of small tubercles rich in bacilli. The other glands of the body and the lungs were free from lesions. °

The second kid died fifty-one days after birth. Its mother had then been dead for twenty-seven days, and since then it had been fed with the milk of another goat known to be non-tuberculous. The post-mortem examination showed lesions similar to those in the first kid—viz., most advanced lymphadenitis of the mesenteric glands, which on section were found to be filled with small firm tubercles, some of them caseous. The other abdominal lymphatic glands, and also the bronchial and retro-pharyngeal glands, were normal, but the lungs were crammed with very young translucent miliary tubercles containing bacilli.

The authors obviously attach great importance to the fact that there were pulmonary lesions in this kid, as the statement is printed in italics. It need hardly be pointed out that in reality this experiment is not of the least value in enabling one to deter- mine whether cases of primary pulmonary tuberculosis are the result of infection by inhalation or not, because in this experi- mental animal the disease was not confined to the lungs. The experiment therefore not only does not prove that primary pul- monary tuberculosis cannot be produced by inhalation, but it also fails to prove that primary pulmonary tuberculosis can be pro- duced by ingestion.

In the same paper the authors described certain experiments in which they attempted to infect young goats by introducing tubercle bacilli directly into the rumen by means of an cesophageal tube. These young goats were thus infected with tubercle bacilli of the bovine type.

Human and Bovine Tuberculosis. 201

Goat No. 1.—Received on four successive days 50 mg. of culture made into a fine emulsion with 10 c.c. of sterile water, and it was killed thirty-four days afterwards. The post mortem showed enlargement of the mesenteric glands, which contained tubercles that were partly caseous. The two lungs were filled with tubercles, and the bronchial glands were greatly enlarged and tuberculous.

Goat No. 2.—Received in the same way on two successive days 50 mg. of culture. It was killed forty-five days afterwards. Here again the mesenteric glands were enlarged and tuber- culous, but the lungs and other organs were healthy.

Goat No. 3.—Received in the same way on four successive days 50 mg. of culture. It died seventy-seven days afterwards. The post mortem showed great enlargement of the mesenteric glands, which contained caseous tubercles filled with numerous tubercle bacilli. The other lymphatic glands in the abdominal cavity and the liver and spleen were normal. Both lungs were crammed with tubercles, some of which were as large as a pea, and an adhesion had formed between the right lung and the chest wall. The bronchial and mediastinal glands were enormously enlarged and caseous.

Here, again, it must be pointed out that such experiments have no bearing on the question of the intestinal origin of pul- monary tuberculosis. The authors must have entirely misunder- stood the position of those who maintain that inhalation is the commonest method of natural infection in human and bovine tuberculosis, and to have thought it necessary to prove what no one has ever denied—viz., that an animal infected with tuber- culosis by ingestion may, when it is killed, or when it dies, be found to have intra-thoracic lesions.

The authors then proceed to give an account of similar ex- periments in which adult goats were employed. In one of these experiments a male goat, aged 2, had administered to it by means of the cesophageal tube on each of four successive days 50 mg. of a culture of tubercle bacilli of the bovine type. The animal was killed sixty-five days afterwards, and the post mortem showed that while the mesenteric glands were of normal size they con- tained some small tubercles calcified in their centres and without stainable bacilli. There were no other visible lesions in the abdominal organs, but the lungs were filled with tubercles in all

Hi

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SS Sew wera oer

= as = =

SESS:

202 The Veterinary $ournad.

stages of evolution, and there were enormous cavities in the pulmonary tissue filled with pus which was rich in tubercle bacilli,

The second goat, aged 3, was similarly infected and killed after fifty days. In this case the mesenteric glands were very slightly enlarged, but sections of them showed small tubercles, caseous at the centre and containing numerous bacilli. The other abdominal viscera were perfectly healthy, but the two lungs contained about thirty tubercles about the size of a hemp seed. The mediastinal, bronchial, and pharyngeal glands were healthy.

The third goat, aged 5, was similarly infected. When it was killed fifty days afterwards the post mortem showed slight en- largement of some of the mesenteric glands, and the larger of them contained numerous small tubercles rich in bacilli. The lungs were the seat of a recent tuberculous eruption, the tubercles being small but already beginning to caseate. The bronchial, mediastinal, and pharyngeal glands were healthy.

The first conclusion with which the authors terminate this paper is, that in the immense majority of cases pulmonary tuber- culosis is not contracted by inhalation, but by ingestion. This conclusion is based partly on the result of the experiments pre- viously summarized, and partly on a consideration of the manner in which pulmonary anthracosis is produced. What value attaches to these latter considerations will be discussed presently, but in the meantime one need not hesitate to declare that the above experiments conducted by Calmette and Guerin afforded no grounds for abandoning the view previously generally held that inhalation is the common, if not the exclusive, method of infection in cases of primary pulmonary tuberculosis.

These authors returned to the subject during the following year (1906),* and described further experiments in which they infected cattle with bovine tubercle bacilli by means of an cesophageal tube. In introducing an account of these experi- ments the authors explained that they preferred this method of experimental infection because they had found it difficult to infect animals by causing them to ingest even large quantities of tubercle bacilli in liquid, taken for instance, out of a pail. They account for this difficulty by assuming that the greater part of the liquid thus ingested finds its way into the rumen, where the bacilli became exposed to influences unfavourable *> them.

* Loc. vtt., 1906, pp. 353 and 609.

e . tive liquid is allowed to flow slowiy through a tube introduced Hl) d into the cesophagus, care being taken that the end of the tube i y does not reach the rumen, and they assume that liquid so i

administered escapes the first and second stomachs and therefore |

‘ey

we

FHluman and Bovine Tuberculosis 203 Hy!

They believe that better results can be obtained when the infec-

falls directly into the third, and from that into the fourth stomach. The authors have not furnished any evidence to show that this is the course taken by liquids administered through an cesophageal tube according to their directions, and my own ti experiments have convinced me that their assumption is entirely erroneous. When coloured liquids are so administered and the animal is killed immediately afterwards one generally finds that not a drop of the liquid has reached the fourth stomach.

Time will not permit me to describe the experiments recorded i in the second and third papers by these authors, although they are by no means numerous.

In reality the experiments were too few in number to justify | any very sweeping conclusion, but, so far as they go they indicate that the usual result of infection by ingestion is the development "| of a tuberculosis which primarily involves the mesenteric glands. It is true that some of them showed that when animals are in- fected by causing them to swallow doses of bacilli that must be considered enormous as compared with those that are commonly in operation in natural circumstances, the disease may become Mt rapidly generalized, with the result that tubercle bacilli or even Hf definite tuberculous lesions may be found in the lungs or thoracic 1 glands wjthin a few weeks after the act of infection. But that falls far short of proof that a tuberculosis with well-defined macroscopic lesions confined to the thorax can be set up by | introducing tubercle bacilli into the alimentary canal. i

The truth, however, is that Calmette’s and Guérin’s experi- ments give only a confused picture of the usual results of experi- mental tuberculosis determined by ingestion. th

The published Reports of the Royal Commission on Tuber- i] culosis contain the records of numerous experiments (which the speaker here summarized) in which calves were infected by Hi causing them to ingest tubercle bacilli, and in no single case were the lesions found at the post mortem confined to the thorax. In many they were confined to the abdomen, and when thoracic Hh lesions were also present.they appeared not to be of older stand- ing than those in the abdomen.

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204 The Veterinary $ournal.

These cases might be supplemented by many others carried out by various experimenters with practically identical results. That, however, appears to be entirely unnecessary in order to convince any unbiassed person that in the case of cattle the almost invariable result of infection by ingestion is a tuberculosis with more or less conspicuous lesions in the abdominal cavity, and especially in the mesenteric glands. Incidentally, the experi- ments also indicate how difficult it is to set up a rapidly progres- sive or fatal tuberculosis, even in such highly susceptible subjects as young calves, and with relatively very large doses of bacilli.

As the practically important point to be determined is the common method of infection in cattle and in man (in whom the question cannot be experimentally investigated) the experiments with calves have an importance far transcending those of the same kind which have been carried out with other animals, and the conclusions they warrant when taken by themselves would not be invalidated even if it could be shown that in other species feeding experiments yield different results. As a matter of fact, however, the numerous other experiments with different species which are described in the Reports of the Royal Commission on Tuberculosis had results that are almost completely concordant with those obtained in bovine animals. The only exceptions were a few cases in which dogs fed with bovine tubercle bacilli were found when killed to have pulmonary lesions (usually in the shape of a few small tubercles) without visible disease of any of the abdominal organs. It ought to be noted, however, that dogs, and particularly adult dogs, are highly resistant to infection by ingestion, as proved by the fact that a notable proportion of the feeding experiments carried out by the Royal Commission with animals of that species had entirely negative results. Further- more, in the majority of the positive cases lesions were present in the abdomen. In view of these facts, and of the results of comparative inhalation and feeding experiments with dogs pre- sently to be described, it will hardly be contended by anyone that the few exceptional results, referred to above, lend any real sup- port to the view that primary pulmonary tuberculosis in cattle or in man is usually the result of infection by ingestion.

Attention may next be called to two papers, one by Findel and the other by Reichenbach, bearing: on this question, which emanated from the Hygienic Institute of the University of

Human and Bovine Tuberculoses. 205

Breslau in 1907 and 1908. The authors of these articles (Findel and Reichenbach) carried out researches which were intended to throw further light on the relative importance of infection by inhalation and infection by ingestion in tuberculosis, and the experiments have a peculiar value because they were so designed as to furnish a conclusive answer to the contention of Calmette and others that positive results obtained in animals compelled to inhale tubercle bacilli must be ascribed to accidental deglutition of the bacilli during the experiment. However improbable this suggestion might appear to be, it was impossible to refute it as long as (1) the inhalation experiments were conducted with large unmeasured doses of bacilli, and (2) information was lacking to show the minimum effective dose of bacilli administered by the mouth. Calmette and Guérin not only contended that direct infection of the lungs in inhalation experiments was impossible, but also assumed that comparatively small doses of bacilli were sufficient to ensure infection provided that these were swallowed. In the following experiments account was taken of this assump-

tion by having for each set of animals caused to inhale a measured ,

dose of infective material a control set to which the same dose was administered by the mouth. Immediately this method of experimentation was adopted it became apparent that