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Customer Satisfaction

Limitation on Warranties and Liability

Copyright

Product Revisions

If you discover physical defects in the manuals distributed with an Apple product or in the media on which a software product is distributed, Apple will replace the documentation or media at no charge to you during the 90-day period after you purchased the product.

In addition, If Apple releases a corrective update to a software product during the 90-day period after you purchased the software, Apple will replace the applicable disks and documentation with the revised version at no charge to you during the six months after the date of purchase.

In some countries the replacement period may be different; check with your authorized Apple dealer. Return any item to be replaced with proof of purchase to Apple or an authorized Apple dealer.

Even though Apple has tested the software described in this manual and reviewed its contents, neither Apple nor its software suppliers make any warranty or representation, either express or implied, with respect to this manual or to the software described in this manual, their quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for any particular purpose. As a result, this software and manual are sold ‘‘as is,’ and you the purchaser are assuming the entire risk as to their quality and performance. In no event will Apple or its software suppliers be liable for direct, indirect, incidental, or consequential damages resulting from any defect in the software or manual, even if they have been advised of the possibility of such damages. In particular, they shall no have no liability for any programs or data stored in or used with Apple products, including the costs of recovering or reproducing these programs or data. Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of implied warranties or liability for incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to you.

This manual and the software (computer programs) described in it are copyrighted by Apple or by Apple’s software suppliers, with all rights reserved. Under the copyright laws, this manual or the programs may not be copied, in whole or part, without the written consent of Apple, except in the normal use of the software or to make a backup copy. This exception does not allow copies to be made for others, whether or not sold, but all of the material purchased (with all backup copies) may be sold, given or loaned to another person. Under the law, copying includes translating into another language.

You may use the software on any computer owned by you but extra copies cannot be made for this purpose. For some products, a multi-use license may be purchased to allow the software to be used on more than one computer owned by the purchaser, including a shared-disk system. (Contact your authorized Apple dealer for information on multi-use licenses.)

Apple cannot guarantee that you will receive notice of a revision to the software described in this manual, even if you have returned a registration card received with the product. You should periodically check with your authorized Apple dealer.

© Apple Computer, Inc. 1983 20525 Mariani Avenue Cupertino, California 95014 (408) 996-1010

Apple, the Apple logo, and Silentype ® are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

AppleWorks developed by Rupert Lissner.

AppleWorks™, Quick File™, ProFile™, and ProDOS™ are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

DIF™ is a trademark of Software Arts, Inc. VisiCalc® is a registered trademark of VisiCorp.

k™ is a trademark of Thunderware, Inc.

Thundercloc Qume® is a registered trademark of Qume Corporation. Epson™ is a trademark of Epson America, Inc.

Simultaneously published in the U.S.A. and Canada. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents

XVili XVill xix Xix

3 3 4 6

10

13 14 14 15 17 18 19

List of Figures and Tables

About This Manual

Where to Start

For More Information

How This Manual Is Designed Your Ideas Are Welcome!

Understanding AppleWorks

What Is AppleWorks? Equipment You Need How Does AppleWorks Work? About AppleWorks Files File Sources General Guidelines for AppleWorks Files File Locations Backing Up Files

Working With AppleWorks

Starting to Use AppleWorks Communicating With AppleWorks Using Open-Apple Commands Responding to Prompts Typing and Editing Information: General Guidelines

Using Using AppleWorks’ Ruler

Table of Contents

Xi!

XV

19 Using Main Menu Options

19 Adding Files to the Desktop 7

21 Working With One of the Files on the Desktop

22 Saving Desktop Files to Disk

23 Removing Files From the Desktop

25 Quitting AppleWorks

26 Using Other Activities Menu Options

27 Changing the Current Disk Drive or ProDOS Prefix 28 Listing Files on the Current Disk

28 Creating a New Subdirectory

29 Deleting Files From the Disk

29 Formatting a Blank Disk

30 Selecting the Standard Location of the Data Disk 31 Using Special Features

31 Asking for Help

31 Moving Back and Forth Between Files

32 Saving the File You’re Working On

32 Printing a Copy of the Display

32 Keeping Track of Available Desktop Space Understanding the Data Base 33 35 The Data Base’s Two Main Functions

36 3=Activity Flow

38 File Guidelines

Working With Data Base Information 40 43 Creating a Data Base File

43 Planning a New Data Base File

Ah Creating the File

47 Single- and Multiple-Record Layouts

47 Single-Record Layout

48 Multiple-Record Layout

48 Inserting Records

49 Records Into a New File

49 Records Into an Existing File

51. ~Putting Information Into Entries

51 Typing and Editing Entries

51 Dittoing Entries

52 Using Standard Values

53 Using Dates and Times

55 Moving the Cursor

55 Cursor Movement in Multiple- and Single-Record Layout 56 Cursor Movement in Multiple-Record Layout

56 Cursor Movement in Single-Record Layout

57 ~Deleting Records

Table of Contents

58 Copying Records

58 Copying One Record

58 Copying Groups of Records

59 Moving Records

59 Displaying Certain Records

59 Changing Record Selection Rules

60 Finding Certain Records

61 Arranging Records

62 Zooming In and Out

62 Changing the Record Layout

62 Changing the Multiple-Record Layout

64 Changing the Single-Record Layout

64 Changing a File’s Structure

Reporting With the Data Base 67 69 Report Styles

70 Report Formats

72 Report Menu

73 Creating a Tables-Style Report

75 Summary of Considerations and Features 76 Moving the Cursor

76 Changing Column Width

77 Switching Category Positions

77 Deleting Categories

78 Inserting Previously Deleted Categories

78 Changing Record Selection Rules

78 Arranging Records for the Report

79 Right Justifying Categories

80 Adding or Changing Report Names and Titles 80 Creating Calculated Categories

83 Adding and Removing Totals

84 Controlling Group Totals

85 Creating a Labels-Style Report

86 Summary of Considerations and Features 87 Moving the Cursor

87 Moving Categories

88 Deleting Spacing Lines or Categories From the Report 88 Inserting Spacing Lines or Previously Deleted Categories 89 Left Justifying Categories

89 Arranging Records for the Report

90 Changing Record Selection Rules

90 Looking at Records

91 Printing Category Names on the Report

91 Adding or Changing Report Names or Titles

Table of Contents -

92 94 96 98 99 99

Working With Printer Options Using Left and Right Margin Options Using Top and Bottom Margin Options Using Other Formatting Options Determining Spacing in Tables-Style Reports Determining Spacing in Labels-Style Reports

Understanding the Word Processor 1017

103 104 104

The Word Processor’s Two Main Functions Activity Flow File Guidelines

Working With Word Processor 107 Documents

109 109 111 113 113 113 115 115 115 116 117 117 118 119 119 120 121 122 122 123 124 124 125 125 125 126 126 126 127 127

Making a Document Planning a Word Processor Document Creating the Document Typing and Editing Information Word Wraparound Using Inserting Information Striking Over Existing Information Editing Information Moving the Cursor Within a Document Viewing Your Document Deleting Information Replacing Existing Information Text and Case Sensitive Text Replacing One or Several Occurrences of Information Replacing All Occurrences of Information Moving Text Within a Document Copying Text Within a Document Finding Information Finding Text Finding a Specific Page Finding Case Sensitive Text Finding a Printer Option Using Markers setting Markers Finding a Marker Using Tabs setting and Clearing Tabs Moving the Cursor to Tabs Changing the Name of Your File

Table of Contents

Formatting a Word Processor 129 Document

131 134 134 135 136 137 138 139 142 143 143 146 147 148 148 149 150 150 151 152 152 153 153 154

Sample Documents Using the Word Processor’s Printer Options What Are Printer Options? Zooming In on Printer Options Changing Printer Options AppleWorks’ Default Values for Main Printer Options Controlling Horizontal Spacing Controlling Print Density Controlling Vertical Spacing Controlling Layout Making Hanging Paragraphs and Bullets (Indenting) Justifying, Unjustifying, and Centering Using Page Headers and Footers Using Special Printing Techniques Using Boldface and Underlining Using Superscripts and Subscripts Using Sticky Spaces Controlling Paging and Page Numbers Calculating Page Numbers Specifying a New Page Specifying Groups of Information Numbering Pages Printing Page Numbers Typing Information From the Keyboard

Understanding the Spreadsheet 155

157 158 158

The Spreadsheet’s Two Main Functions Activity Flow File Guidelines

Working With Information 160 in Worksheets

163 163 170 172 174 176 177 178

Making a Worksheet Planning a New Worksheet Creating the Worksheet Working With Worksheet Standard Values Details About Worksheet Standard Values Checking Standard Values in Effect Changing Worksheet Standard Values Moving the Cursor Through the Worksheet

Table of Contents vit

179 179 179 180 180 181 181 182 183 188 189 190 193 193 194 194 196 199 199 200 200 201 201 201 203 204 204 205 206 207

Typing and Editing Information Typing Entries Editing Entries Pointing to Cells Using Labels Using Values Numbers Pointers Functions Formulas Working With Cell Layouts Details About Cell Layouts Checking Cell Layouts Changing Cell Layouts Viewing Your Worksheet Setting and Removing a Fixed Titles Area Working With a Split Worksheet Blanking Areas of the Worksheet Deleting Rows or Columns Inserting Rows or Columns Moving Columns or Rows Within a Worksheet Copying Information What Are the Copy-From Cells? What Are the Copy-To Cells? Copy the Contents Exactly? Copy the Contents Depending on Their New Position? Steps for Copying Calculating New Values Arranging Information in the Worksheet Finding a Cell or Specific Information

Reporting With the Spreadsheet 209

211 211 212 214 216 218 218

Determining What Information to Include Determining the Width of Your Report Using Printer Options Left and Right Margin Options Top and Bottom Margin Options Other Formatting Options Determining Spacing in Reports

Table of Contents

Using Cut and Paste 219

221 How Does Cut and Paste Work? 224 Cut and Paste With Data Base Information 224 Moving or Copying Data Base Records to Another Data Base File 225 Printing a Report to the Clipboard for a Word Processor Document 226 Cut and Paste With Word Processor Documents 227 Cut and Paste With Spreadsheet Information 227 Moving or Copying Spreadsheet Information to Another Spreadsheet File 228 Printing a Report to the Clipboard for a Word Processor Document

Printers and Printing 229

231 Methods of Printing

233 Printing to a Printer

233 Printing to Disk

234 Printing to a Text (ASCII) File

234 Printing to the Clipboard

234 Printing to a DIF File

234 Printing to the Screen

235 Printing a Hard Copy of the Display 235 About Printers

236 Specifying Information About Your Printer 237 Adding a Printer

239 Removing a Printer

239 Changing Printer Specifications

239 Changing the Display Printer

240 Printing

240 Printing a Data Base Report

240 Printing a Word Processor Document 242 Printing a Spreadsheet Report

Table of Contents

Using AppleWorks With a ProFile

Preparing AppleWorks

for a Custom Printer

251 Selecting a Custom Printer

252 Configuring Your Custom Printer

252 Characters Per Inch

253 Lines Per Inch

254 Boldface, Subscript, and Superscript 255 Underlining

257 Entering Other Codes 258 Characteristics of Printers

Glossary Index Quick Reference Card

Tell Apple Card

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables

ONO OC] &

17 20 22 24

35 37 38 38

44 47 48 53 04

69 71 72 74 75 85 86

Chapter 1:

Figure 1-1. Figure 1-2. Figure 1-3. Figure 1-4. Table 1-1.

Chapter 2:

Figure 2-1. Figure 2-2. Figure 2-3. Figure 2-4. Figure 2-5.

Chapter 3:

Figure 3-1. Figure 3-2. Figure 3-3. Table 3-1.

Chapter 4:

Figure 4-1. Figure 4-2. Figure 4-3. Table 4-1. Table 4-2.

Chapter 5:

Figure 5-1. Figure 5-2. Figure 5-3. Figure 5-4. Table 5-1.

Figure 5-5. Table 5-2.

Understanding AppleWorks

AppleWorks’ Two Levels of Activities Cut and Paste

AppleWorks Flowchart

Sources of AppleWorks Files General AppleWorks File Guidelines

Working With AppleWorks

Main Menu

List of AppleWorks Files Add Files Menu

Save Files Menu Remove Files Menu

Understanding the Data Base

Data Base’s Two Main Functions Flowchart of Data Base Activities Data Base Terminology

Data Base File Guidelines

Working With Data Base Information

Office Inventory File

Single-Record Layout Multiple-Record Layout

Dates Converted to Standard Format Times Converted to Standard Format

Reporting With the Data Base

Tables-Style Report

Labels-Style Report

Report Menu

Tables-Style Report Format Display

Main Considerations for Tables-Style Reports Labels-Style Report Format Display

Main Considerations for Labels-Style Reports

List of Figures and Tables

92 93 94 96 98 99

103 105

112 114

132 133 135 136 138 139 140 141 142 145 146 147 153

157 159

164 165 166 170 173 174 175 176 181 181 182 184

Figure 5-6. Figure 9-7.

Table 5-3. Table 5-4. Table 5-5. Table 5-6.

Chapter 6:

Figure 6-1. Figure 6-2.

Chapter 7:

Figure 7-1. Figure 7-2.

Chapter 8: Figure 8-1. Figure 8-2. Figure 8-3. Figure 8-4.

Table 8-1. Table 8-2.

Table 8-3a. Table 8-3b.

Table 8-4.

Figure 8-5. Figure 8-6. Figure 8-7. Figure 8-8.

Chapter 9:

Figure 9-1. Figure 9-2.

Chapter 10:

Figure 10-1. Figure 10-2. Figure 10-3. Figure 10-4. Figure 10-5. Table 10-1. Table 10-2. Table 10-3. Table 10-4. Table 10-5. Table 10-6. Table 10-7.

Tables-Style Printer Options Labels-Style Printer Options

Left and Right Margin Options

Top and Bottom Margin Options

Other Formatting Options

Spacing Options in Labels-Style Reports

Understanding the Word Processor

Overview of Word Processor Word Processor Flowchart

Working With Word Processor Documents

New Word Processor Document Word Wraparound

Formatting a Word Processor Document

Tower of Mammon Document Qualifications Document

Zoomed-in Qualifications Document Printer Options

Printer Options for Horizontal Spacing Printers and Proportional Spacing Types Printing Examples: Dot Matrix Printer Printing Examples: Daisy Wheel Printer Printer Options for Vertical Spacing Indented Text

Justified, Unjustified, and Centered Text Headers and Footers

Page Numbers Within Headers and Footers

Understanding the Spreadsheet

Spreadsheet’s Two Main Functions Spreadsheet Flowchart

Working With Information in Worksheets

Net Personal Worth Worksheet Winter Grades Worksheet Loan Schedule Worksheet

A New Worksheet

Worksheet Standard Values Standard Values for Values Standard Values for Labels Recalculation Order and Frequency How Labels Go in Cells

How Numbers Go in Cells

How Pointers Go in Cells Arguments for Functions

List of Figures and Tables

184 184

185 186 186 187 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 195 196 197 202 202 203 203 204

213

214

216

218

223

232 236 238

292 254 255 256

List of Figures and Tables

Table 10-8. Table 10-9.

Table 10-10. Figure 10-6. Table 10-11. Table 10-12. Table 10-13. Figure 10-7. Table 10-14. Figure 10-8. Table 10-15. Table 10-16. Table 10-17. Figure 10-9.

Figure 10-10. Figure 10-11. Figure 10-12. Figure 10-13. Figure 10-14. Figure 10-15. Figure 10-16.

Chapter 11: Figure 11-1. Table 11-1. Table 11-2.

Table 11-3.

Chapter 12: Figure 12-1. Chapter 13:

Figure 13-1. Table 13-1. Table 13-2.

Appendix B:

Figure B-1. Figure B-2. Figure B-3. Figure B-4.

Kinds of Functions

Arithmetic Functions With a Single-Value Argument

Arithmetic Functions With a List Argument Lookup Table

Financial Function

Logical Operators

Evaluations for @IF

How a Formula Works

How Formulas Go In Cells

Cell Layouts

Values for Values Layouts

Values for Labels Layouts Possibilities for Cell Protection Worksheet With Fixed Top Titles Area Worksheet Split Top and Bottom Worksheet Split Left and Right Copying One Cell

Copying a Column

Copying a Row

An Exact Copy

A Relative Copy

Reporting With the Spreadsheet

Printer Options for Spreadsheet Reports Left and Right Margin Options for Spreadsheet Reports

Top and Bottom Margin Options for Spreadsheet Reports

Other Formatting Options for Spreadsheet Reports

Using Cut and Paste Cutting and Pasting Printers and Printing

Different Ways AppleWorks Prints Specifications for Printers on AppleWorks’ List Generic Specifications About Printers

Preparing AppleWorks for a Custom Printer

Printer Codes Menu Enhancement Menu Underlining Menu Underlining Codes Menu

About This Manual

Where to Start

For More Information

How This Manual Is Designed Your Ideas Are Welcome!

x al <, <, xe ==

Preface: About This Manual

.

About This Manual

This manual contains reference information that describes all the features of AppleWorks™ Integrated Software. It contains the following chapters and appendixes:

@ Chapter 1, ‘‘Understanding AppleWorks,” presents a general overview of AppleWorks and discusses AppleWorks files.

@ Chapter 2, ‘Working With AppleWorks,” tells how to interact with AppleWorks and includes instructions for using menu options.

@ Chapter 3, ‘“‘Understanding the Data Base,’ discusses the AppleWorks Data Base’s main functions, activity flow, and file guidelines.

@ Chapter 4, ‘‘Working With Data Base Information,” explains how to create Date Base files, keep information up to date, and display it in different ways.

@ Chapter 5, ‘‘Reporting With the Data Base,”’ details how to create Data Base reports.

@ Chapter 6, ‘“‘“Understanding the Word Processor,’’ summarizes the AppleWorks Word Processor’s main functions, activity flow, and file guidelines.

@ Chapter 7, ‘‘Working With Word Processor Documents,”’ tells how to use the Word Processor to create and edit documents.

@ Chapter 8, ‘Formatting a Word Processor Document,” describes how to arrange a document the way you want it.

@ Chapter 9, ‘Understanding the Spreadsheet,’’ summarizes the AppleWorks Spreadsheet’s two main functions, illustrates its flow of activities, and lists file guidelines.

@ Chapter 10, ‘“Working With Information in Worksheets,”’ presents steps for using the Spreadsheet to create sophisticated worksheets with a minimum of effort.

@ Chapter 11, ‘Reporting With the Spreadsheet,” explains how to create Spreadsheet reports.

Preface: About This Manual *

@ Chapter 12, ‘‘Using Cut and Paste,”’ tells how to use AppleWorks’ cut and paste feature to combine information of different types.

® Chapter 13, ‘“‘Printers and Printing,’ presents how to communicate information to AppleWorks about your printer and tells how to print reports and documents.

@ Appendix A tells how to use AppleWorks with a ProFile™

@ Appendix B presents steps for preparing AppleWorks to print on a custom printer.

Chapter tables of contents help you find what you want. The explanation of each feature contains numbered instructions and practical tips for using that feature.

Where to Start

If you have little or no experience with computers, you will probably be happier starting with the Product Training Disk (PTD), which comes with AppleWorks, and then working with the AppleWorks Tutorial before you start to use AppleWorks with this manual.

If you are an experienced computer user and you’re anxious to get started using AppleWorks right away, work your way through the PTD and then use this manual. And have fun!

For More Information These sources of information will help all AppleWorks users: @ The index and reference card at the back of the manual.

@ The glossary at the back of the manual. Terms in boldface in the manual are defined in the glossary.

@ The help information available whenever (G)~’*! fr Fei appears in the bottom-right corner of an AppleWorks display.

By the Way: The help available notice at the bottom of the display may appear in one of two forms:

a black * in a white square, that is, an inverse F, followed by a question mark

®@ an outline of an Open-Apple ((G)), also followed by a question mark.

You may also have seen i} +--*- in some of your other software.

These forms all mean the same thing—help is available when you press

while you type (7? ).

Preface: About This Manual

Notes in the margin point to useful information contained elsewhere in this or other manuals.

Keycap Notation: In this manual, two keycaps separated by a hyphen means to hold down the first key while you lightly press the other key; then release both. If there isn’t a hyphen between the keys, press the first key, release it, and then press the other.

Be sure to read the sections of your Apple computer’s owner’s manual that explain how to set up your computer and how to use the system utilities disk to make backup copies of your disks before you begin with AppleWorks.

How This Manual Is Designed

Look for these visual aids throughout the manual:

AppleWorks Tip

Information labeled with AppleWorks Tip presents different ways of using a particular feature.

Warning Warning boxes like this alert you to potential problems.

Your Ideas Are Welcome!

A Tell Apple card appears at the back of this manual. Please fill it out and return it after you’ve had some experience using AppleWorks.

Your Ideas Are Welcome!

Understanding AppleWorks

What Is AppleWorks? Equipment You Need How Does AppleWorks Work? About AppleWorks Files File Sources General Guidelines for AppleWorks Files File Locations Standard and Current Locations Files by Filename or Grouped by Pathname Backing Up Files

SOMO OO ON OP W W

oh

Chapter 1: Understanding AppleWorks

S

.

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rt ai

Understanding AppleWorks

This chapter presents a general overview of AppleWorks. It also tells about AppleWorks files.

What Is AppleWorks?

AppleWorks is a computer applications program that allows you to do data base management, word processing, and spreadsheet analysis. AppleWorks’ three functions are performed by three software tools that create and work with a specific kind of information:

@ The AppleWorks Data Base allows you to work with information you normally keep in lists: names and addresses, schedules, inventories.

@ The AppleWorks Word Processor is for writing reports, memos, letters.

@ The AppleWorks Spreadsheet lets you create information you normally put on a worksheet and manipulate with a calculator: budgets, financial forecasts, income and expense statements.

Because AppleWorks is an integrated program, you can move back and forth at will among these three software tools and the files they create. And you can combine these three kinds of information, cutting and pasting one kind of information into another. AppleWorks’ integration greatly increases your ability to work with information in the easiest and most efficient way.

Equipment You Need To use AppleWorks, you'll need this equipment:

@ An Apple lle computer with an 80-Column Text Card, preferably one with extended memory, in the large auxiliary slot

® A video monitor

® One or more disk drives with the controller card in slot 6

Equipment You Need

Figure 1-1. AppleWorks’ Two Levels of Activities

@ The AppleWorks disks named Startup, Program, and Sample Files

® Two blank, formatted disks (to make copies of Startup and Program disks).

To make maximum use of AppleWorks, you also need a printer with the printer interface card in slot 1.

Here’s some other nice-to-have equipment: @ A ProFile, with the interface card in slot 5

@ A system clock, with the interface card in slot 2 or slot 4.

How Does AppleWorks Work?

There are two levels of activity within AppleWorks, as Figure 1-1 illustrates. The bottom level of activity is performed by the Data Base, the Word Processor, and the Spreadsheet. At this level, you do the actual work on information, creating and reviewing it, changing it, and printing it.

At the top level, AppleWorks contains information about where you store your files and about your printer. It controls information by moving files onto the Desktop, which is the area of the Apple computer’s random-access memory (RAM) that you use to work with your files, and by saving the files for you after you’ve worked with them.

AppleWorks Information Control

—file movement —where files are —printer information

Information Work in Review/Add/Change

—Data Base —Word Processor —Spreadsheet

Chapter 1: Understanding AppleWorks

As AppleWorks administers the space on the Desktop, it warns you when you are running out of Desktop space, and it lets you move back and forth from one AppleWorks file to another.

AppleWorks also lets you transfer information from one file into

See Chapter 12 for complete cut and another, an activity called cut and paste. You can cut and paste

paste instructions.

Figure 1-2. Cut and Paste

Data Base File

Data Base information transferred

from one file to another.

See ‘‘Quitting AppleWorks”’ in

information into another file of the same type; for example, you can cut and paste Data Base information into another Data Base file. You can also create Data Base and Spreadsheet reports and paste them into Word Processor documents. Figure 1-2 shows a cut and paste operation.

When you cut and paste, you transfer information through the clipboard. The clipboard is an AppleWorks term that refers to an area of the computer’s RAM that is reserved for cut and paste.

Data Base File

Clipboard

A Warning

Because the Desktop and the clipboard are actually a part of the memory of the computer, information in each place disappears when you turn off the power to the computer or when you leave AppleWorks by starting up

Chapter 2 for how to leave AppleWorks @nother program. You should make sure you save new and changed files

safely.

permanently before you leave AppleWorks.

Figure 1-3 is a flowchart of AppleWorks activities. It shows the options available from the Main Menu and from the Other Activities menu. Flowcharts specific to the Data Base, the Word Processor, and the Spreadsheet are in Chapters 3, 6, and 9, respectively.

How Does AppleWorks Work? .

Figure 1-3. AppleWorks Flowchart

Main Menu

Activities below the Add Files menu are illustrated in the overview chapters for each software tool.

Work With Files

Other Activities Menu

Add Files

Desktop Index

Data Base, Word Processor, Spreadsheet files

Format Select Specify

Change List files Create a Delete | ) standard information

current disk on disk subdirectory files drive or from ProDOS prefix disk

a blank disk

location about your of disk printer(s)

About AppleWorks Files

AppleWorks provides an enormous amount of flexibility both in the sources you can use for files and in the lack of strict guidelines for files. In addition, it keeps information on the storage location of your files so you don’t have to always tell AppleWorks where to look when you want to use a file. This section tells all about file sources, guidelines, and storage locations.

Chapter 1: Understanding AppleWorks

Figure 1-4. Sources of AppleWorks

Files

File Sources

AppleWorks allows you to create files from scratch using the Data Base, the Word Processor, and the Spreadsheet. In addition, AppleWorks adds to your data management capability by letting you use files created by other programs as sources for AppleWorks files. Then you can use AppleWorks’ tools to work with these files. Figure 1-4 provides an overview of sources for

AppleWorks files.

Word Processor

Data Base

Spreadsheet

About AppleWorks Files

Clipboard

Specific requirements for each type of file are listed in Chapters 4, 7, and 10.

Table 1-1. General AppleWorks File Guidelines

The clipboard is indicated by a dotted line. The keystrokes (G)-(P), (G)-(M), and (G)-(C) are used to move files or parts of

files from one area to another when you are using cut and paste.

Text (ASCII) files are sources for Data Base and Word Processor files. Text files are files created by Apple Writer and some data

base management systems.

® Quick File™ files are sources for Data Base files.

e DIF™, or Data Interchange Format, files are sources for Spreadsheet and Data Base files. DIF files are created by VisiCalc® and many other programs; they allow for easy data

interchange between programs.

@ VisiCalc files are sources for Spreadsheet files.

General Guidelines for AppleWorks Files

Table 1-1 contains general guidelines for AppleWorks files.

File Feature

Maximum number of AppleWorks files per flexible disk

Maximum number of AppleWorks files per ProDOS™ subdirectory

Maximum number of AppleWorks files allowed on AppleWorks’ Desktop

Guidelines for filenames

Guideline

Depends on size of files; up to 140K total characters

130 12

15 characters maximum. The name must start with a letter, and it can contain only uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, spaces, and periods.

Space Available: Depending on the size of your computer’s memory, the space available number you see in the lower-right corner of the display may be larger or smaller than that in the manual’s illustrations.

By the Way: It’s always best to give a unique name to each file, one that tells you as closely as possible what’s in the file. Because of the freedom AppleWorks gives you in naming files, it’s easy to describe the contents of a file in the filename.

Chapter 1: Understanding AppleWorks

See ‘‘Selecting the Standard Location of the Data Disk”’ and ‘‘Changing the Current Disk Drive or ProDOS Prefix”’ in Chapter 2 for information on changing file locations.

Complete information about using ProDOS prefixes to identify files and about pathnames is in the ProDOS User’s Manual.

File Locations

The AppleWorks program contains information about where it should look for your files. This storage location information is a combination of two different aspects:

@ Whether the storage location is the standard location or the current location

@ Whether you keep files by filename only, or whether you use a ProFile and/or group them logically by subdirectories.

This section explains both aspects.

Standard and Current Locations

AppleWorks stores information on disk that tells where it should always look for files at startup. This is the standard location of your files. You can override this standard location if you want by providing another, temporary,