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old Natu 7 26, 1891

~ Nature




MAY 1891 to OCTOBER 1891

“* To the sclid ground

Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye.” —WozDSWORTH


Fondon and slew Zork MACMILLAN AND CO. 1891

1’), a Straight Hand, 444 eland), Cloud Heights—Kinematic Method,

, W.), on Diphtheria, 369 ;

, F.R.S.): Inaugural Address at the Annual ng of the Iron and Steel Institute, 42 ; Society - Medal for 1889 awarded to, 184, 301 Constant of, 90; Influence of, upon Observa- Prominences, M. Fizeau, 530

W. de W., F.R.S.): Colour Measurements 3; Apparatus to show Greater Sensitiveness of Colours, 187

ery of Three Colossal Statues at, 575 Gravitation Systems, Frederick Slate, 445

sh, 20,000 franc Prize voted to Elisée Réclus,

atural Sciences of Philadelphia, 353

Dr. Robert Felkin on, 508 Plants, &c., in Russia, 388 ents in Engineering, 1.. F. Vernon-Harcourt, 147 use of Insolubility of Pure Metals in, Ur. Weeren, 259 Testing of Tuning-forks, 155 ; on the Intensity

the Energy used by Organ-pipes, C. K. Production of Musical Notes from Non- ecil Carus- Wilson, 322 ies where found, 416 +: Laboratory Reports of the Royal College of Edinburgh, Vol. Ill, 73; Immunity,

red, 422

thew A.), on Diphtheria, 369

f. W. G., F.R.S.), Comparison of Simultaneous vances at various Observatories, and Deter- Value of Gaussian Coefficients for those Ob-

of Rats at, Capt. R. Light, 600

aphi¢ Department of, 500

s for Instructors, 565

New Method of determining Vertical Motion of _A. Duboin, 144; Experimental Researches on Flight, Prof. S. P. Langley, 277; Maxia.’s New

ev Method of determining Vertical Motion of, i eae eteorology and Climatology of Northern, W. L.

Claude M. Macdonald on the Benué and the Ornithology of Lake Victoria Nyanza, Emin '; Cetaceans in African Lakes, 124, 198; an f the First Ascent of Kilimanjaro, by Dr. Hans '; the-Yoruba Country, Alvan Millson, 209; a Gazaland, Denis Doyle, 209 ; Theodore Bent's n of Zimbabye Ruins, 451 ; Livingstone and the of Central, H. H. Johnston, 492; Colonel mn the Application of Indian Geographical Survey 508 ; Mrs. French Sheldon on East, 508 ; Mr. son’s Explorations in South, 598 Technical Education in, Dr. W. Fream, 137;

Education, University of .Oxford and, 1833; the Weather Service best promote, M. W. Har- 65; Nitrification and Agricultural Chemistry, R. ton, 190; Mr. C. A. Barber appointed Super- nt of the Agricultural Department of the Lee- slands, 257; Agricultural Gazette of “New South 303; Proceedings of the Association of Official ural Chemists, 317; Agriculture in Japan, Manuring


Experiments with Paddy, Dr. O. Kellner, Y. Kozai, Y. Mori, and M. Nagaoka, 353 ; Dairy Work in New South Wales, 436 ; International Agricultural Congress, 450; Agriculture in New South Wales, 451 ; Agricultural Entomology, Resigna- tion of Miss Ormerod, 451, 528; Contemplated Central Agricultural Institute in Russia, 502; Victoria, Department of Agriculture, Summary of Tasks undertaken by, D. McAlpine, 529; the Farmers and the Victoria Department of Agriculture, D. A. Crichton, 550; Projected Agricultural and Mechanical College at San Paulo, Brazil, 549

Air: New Gravimetric Method of ascertaining Composition of Atmospheric, A. Leduc, 311 ; the Expansion and Compres- sibility of Atmospheric, A. W. Witkowski, 312

Air-pressure and Temperature on Summit of Sonnblick, Studies of, Dr. J. Hann, 112

Airy (Sir G. B., F.R.S.): Completion of his Ninetieth Year, 302; his Popular Astronomy, 319

Aitken (John, F.R.S.): a Method of Counting Water Particles in Fog, 119 ; on the Solid and Liquid Particles in Clouds,


Aitken (Edith), Elementary Text-book of Botany for the Use of Schools, 467

Alaska, Prof, Russell’s Excursion to, 629

Albatross : the Wandering, ‘a Remarkable Characteristic of, Sir Walter Buller, F.R.S., 502; a New Species of, Sir Walter Buller, F.R.S., 502 5

Albert University, the Proposed, W. T. Thiselton Dyer, F.R.S., 196.; Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., 222; Prof. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S., 223, 257; Prof. G. Croom Robertson, 248 ; Rev. Dr. A. Irving, 248

Alcock (Dr. A.), the Cruise of the Zuvestiyator, 501, 528

Alcohol, Muscular Strength diminished by, MM. Grehant and Quinquand, 135

Alcohol, Physiological Effects of, Dr. Samuel Wilks, 353

Alcoholism, Prof. Harald Westergaard, 484

Alexandroff (N.), the Molecular Weights of Albumen, 358

Algebra, Solutions of the Examples in Charles Smith’s Elemen- tary, A. G. Cracknell, 444

Algebra, on the Evolution of, Prof. E. W. Hyde, 470

Algeria, the Eocene Formations of, MM. Pomel and Ficheur,

264 Alkyl Sulphides in Petroleum Oil, 89 Allen (Laurence), Defective Ventilation in American Schools,


Allen (W. 1D.), Forging Press, 579

Alloy, Brilliant Purple Gold and Aluminium, Prof. Roberts- Austen, III

Almanac, the Nautical, 593

Alphabet of Motions, J. S. Dismorr, 225

Alpine Flora, the, T. D. A. Cockerell, 6; J. Innes Rogers, 6; J. Lovel, 83

Alpine Glaciers, the Variations of, 389

Alsace Lorraine, Meteorological Service Established in, 233

Alternate Current Motors at the Frankfort International Electri- cal Exhibition, 615

Alum Solution, Harry Napier Draper, 446 ; Ch. Ed. Guillaume, 540; Shelford Bidwell, F.R.S., 56

Amber of Cedar Lake, the so-called, B. J. Harrington, 584

Ambleside, Aurora seen at, Mr. Tuckwell, 475

America : North, Fossil Insects of, with Notes on some European Species, Samuel H. Scudder, R. Lydekker, 1 ; American Jour- nal of Science, 91, 18 ), 310, 439, 463, 584; American Meteoro- logical Journal, 92, 165, 309, 464, 512 ; the Destruction of American Fauna, 113 ; a Geological Excursion in America, S. F. Emmons, 182; Captain Dutton and Geology in

vi Index

5, mires to Nature, ovember 26, 1895

[°“ ut

America, 183 ; American Ethnological Expedition to Labra- dor, 185 ; American National Geographic Society, 281 ; American Journal of Mathematics, 310; Astronomy in America, 323; Appointments to Western University of Pennsylvania and Allegheny Observatory, 323; American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington Meeting, 469; Prof. Geo. L. Goodale on some of the Possibilities. of Economic Botany, 470 ; Section A—Mathe- matics and Astronomy, Prof. E. W. Hyde on the Evolution of Algebra, 470 ; Section B—Physics, Prof. F. E. Nipher on the Functions and Nature of the Ether of Space, 471; Section C —Chemistry, Biological Functions of the Leslie by Walter Maxwell, 471; Section D—Mechanical Science and Engineering, B. E. Fermor on Government Timber Tests, 471; Section E—Geology and Geography, Prof. J. J. Stevenson on the Relations of the Chemung .and Catskill on the Eastern Side of the Appalachian Basin, 471; William Hallock, a Preliminary Report of Observations at the Deep Well, Wheeling, N. Va., 472; Section F—Biology, Prof. John M. Coulter on the Future of Systematic Botany, 472 ; Section W—Anthropology, 473; Section I—Economic Science and Statistics, 4733; Defective Ventilation in American Schools, Laurence Allen, 476 ; American Weather Bureau, 598; Geological Society of America, 601; the International Geological Excursion in, 629; Amerrique Indians at Nicaragua, J. Crawford, 502

Ammonium Sulphovanadate, Crystallization of, Drs. and Chnmais, 19

Amphioxus, the Later Larval Development cf, Arthur Willey, 21, 202

Amsterdam, Royal Academy of Sciences, 72, 144, 288

Aneesthesia, by Subcutaneous Injection of Distilled Water, Pro- duction. of Local, Dr. Sleich, 452

Anatomy of Heloderma, G. A. Boulenger, 444

Anderson (Dr.), on the Constitution of Ordnance Factories, 578

Anderson (William), proposed Fellow of the Royal Society, 15

Andes, Transandine Railway across the, 87

André. (Ch.), Calorimetric Research on Sugar-derived Humic Acid, Electricity, 240

Andrew sha Pugnacity of Male Ostrich in the Nesting Season, 4

Andrews (Thos. , F.R.S.), the Passive State of Steel, 92

Aneroid Barometer and Leibnitz, 40

Animal Chlorophyll, Dr. Ludwig von Graff, Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., 465

Animal Life on a Cant Reef, Dr. S. J. Hickson, 90

Animals, the Evolution of, F. Priem, R. Lydekker, 243

Annelid, the Protective Device of an, Arnold T. Watson, 507

Annuaire de l’Observatoire Municipale de Montsouris, 576

Anschutz’s Photographs of Rapid Movements, 352

Antarctic Expedition, Baron Nordenskiéld’s proposed, 231

Anthropology: the Diminution of the Jaw in Civilized Races, 326; Opening Address in Section H, by Prof. Max Miiller, at the British Association, 428 ; Abnormal Development of Arms and Chests of Fakaofu Islanders, presumably caused by constant Paddling, J. J. Lister, 476; Rarity of Colour Blindness in Savage Races, Dr. L. W. Fox, 477; Prof. R. K. Douglas on the Social and Religious "Ideas of the Chinese, 510 ; Major J. W. Powell on Indian Languages, 511 ; the Margnis of Bute on the Language of Teneriffe, OTT 2 Dr. E. B, Tylor, F.R.S., on Savage Religion, 511; S. E.. Peal on the AZorong of the Natives of Asam, 511; Dr. Garson on Human Remains found i in Yorkshire, 511 ; Miss Buckland on the ‘*‘ Mountain Chant,” 511; Dr. S. A. K. Strahan on In- stinctive Criminality, 511 ; E. H. Man on Nicobar Pottery, 512; the Melanesians, Studies in their Anthropology and Folk- lore, Dr. R. H. Codrington, 613; Primitive Man and Stone Hammers, J. D. McGuire, 630

Antiseptic, Microcidine, a New, Prof. Berlioz, 232

Ants, White, Jackals and Jungle Cocks, 30

Aquatic Insects, some Difficulties in the Life of, “Prof. Lai. Miall, 457

Arab Domination to British Rule, South Africa fro n, 564

Arachnida, Propulsion of Silk by Spiders, 30

. Archzean Gneiss of the North-West Highlands of Scotland, Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., 480

Archeology: Rock- sal phiieed, in Scotland, Sir Herbert Max- well, 350; Discovery of Anc ent Roman Helmet in Tiber, 476; Discovery of Three Colossal Statues at Aboukir, 575;


Iron and

144; Contributions to the Study of increas iad

Discovery of- Anglo-Saxon Skeletons near Lewes, Mr. C. L. Wacker’s Archzological Researches in South West New. Mexico, 576; Album de Paléographie Copte pour seivir a Introduction Paléographique des Acte: des Martyrs de Egypte. Henri Hyvernat, 609 ; Flinder 5 Petrie on Exploration in Egy pt, 630 4 Arctic Expedition, Lieutenant Peary’s projected Botanical,

231 Argyll (the Duke of, F.R.S.), the Green Sandpiper, 274 _ Arloing (Dr. S.), Les Virus, 27 q Arloing (Prof.), Alleged “pe of Consuming Milk and M at of daichii Animals, 396 Armstrong (Prof. H. E., F.R.S.): the Function of Chlorine i in Acid Chlorides, 71; Bromo-derivatives of Betanaphthol, Action of Nitric Acid on Naphthol Dean Formation of Nitro-keto Compounds, New Method of preparing | derivatives, Use of Nitrogen Dioxide as a Ni a 190 ; Chemical Changes occurring in Planté Cell, 2 73 the © Formation of Salts, a Contribution to the’ Theory of ‘O- lysis, and of Nature of Chemical Change in Cone; Non- | electrolytes, 287 . Arsenic for the Preparation of Plants, Danger of g, 232 Art, Gallery of British, at South Kensington and 1 Bowed 4 Museum, 37, 255, 388 H Art, Physical Science for Artists, Prof. J. Norman i 4 F.R.S., 175, 227 Art, the Existing Schools of Science and, ‘Oliver S. Dawson,

47 a Pi POR Jerusalem, at Different Periods of Growth, Varia- tion of Composition of, G. Lechartier, i

Ascidians, the Classification of, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 130 Ashmolean Society, 111 rn Asia, Prof. Vambery on British Civilization in, 88 Asiatic Wild Sheep, Specimens of, at the British Museum, 40 Assam and Burmah, Botanical Survey i in, Dr. King, 549 : Assam, Mr. og L. Sclater’s projected Collecting Expedition to Upper, i Peed (Dr. R.), the Aspiration Psychrometer and its Use in Balloons, 512 : Asteroids, New, 164, 438, 453, 504, 530, 578, 63 ; Astronomy: Prof. [. Norman Lockyer, F, RS. On Some Points in the Early History of Astronomy, 8, 57, 107, 199; Apparent Flattening of the Vault of the Heavens, Prof. Reimann, 67; Astronomical Column, 69, 89, 115, 138, 164, 209, 234, 259, 283, 305, 327, 355, 391, 433, a 478, 504 504, 530, po 577, 601, 631; the Photography aint Nebule, 69; Variations in Latitude, Prof. Van de Sande Bakhuyzen, 69 ; Re-discovery of Wolf's Comet (1884 III.), 69 ; Annual Report of the Paris Observatory, 70; a Comet observed from Sunrise to Noon, Captain William Ellacott, 82; Annual Visitation of the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, 87, 129; the Constant of Aberration, 90; the Meridian Pho- tometer, 115; Report of Harvard College Observatory, 115 ; the Solar Pendlas’ and its related Constants, Prof. W. Hark- ness, 115; Observation of Passage of Mercury across Sun’s Disk, May 9, 1891, D. Eginitis, 119; Determination of | Solar Constant, R. Savelief, 119; Earth Currents, the Electric Railway and the Royal Observatory, William Ellis, 127; the Spectra of Double Stars, Prof. E. C. Pickering, 138 ; the Perseid Radiant, 138 ; Newly-discovered Markings on Saturn, A. Stanley Williams, 164; Partial Solar Eclipse of June 6, 1890, M. Perrotin, 168 ; "Brooks's Comet, 1890 | Ti. Rayet and L. Picart, 168 ; Prof.« Pritchard’s

Report on Oxford University Observatory, 184; Obser-

vations of Wolf’s Periodic Comet, 192, 478: Death © of Norman Pogson, 205 ; Formation in Berlin of a Union ok. Friends of Astronomy and Cosmical Physics, 206, 3 the Capture Theory of Comets, 209; Wolf’s Periodic omet (3. : 1891), 209; the Condition of Space, Sydney Lupton, 210 ; the Draper Catalogue, Prof. Edward C, Pickering, 223 ; the © Smithsonian Astro-Physical Observatory, 254; the Stellar Cluster x Persei, 259; Lunar Inequality of Long Period

owing to Action of Venus, F. Tisserand, 263; a Cause of Lunar Libration, S. E. Peal, 283 ; Double-Star Observations, S. W. Burnham, 283 ; Observations of the Zodiacal Counter Glow, E. E. Barnard, 283 ; Observatory of Yale University, . Dr. Elkin, 283; the Great Comet of 1882, Sereno E. Bishop, | 293; the Solar Corona, Dr. J. M. Schaeberle, 300 ; Prof. J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S., 300: Apparent Total Disap- pearance of Jupiter’s Satellites, C. Flammarion, 311 ; Popular Astronomy, by Sir George B. Airy, F.R.S., 319 ; Appoint-

to all + 26, 1891



stern University of Pennsylvania and Allegheny a 323; ; Prize offered by Fiirstlich Jablonowsky 325; Researches on the Mean Density of the of. A. Cornu, 327 ; Parallax of P Ursz Majoris, Lessons in Astronomy, C. A. Young, 342; a Mag- nt Meteor, Donald Cameron, 343; the Spectrum of B of. E. C. Pickering, 355; the Polarization Theory lar Corona, Prof. Frank H. Bigelow, 355 ; Observa- on of Sirius, Prof. Vogel, 355 ; Return of net, 355; Periodic Variations of Latitudes of Solar A. Ricco, 360 ; Bright Streaks on the Moon, oe for Scotland, 360 ; Pogson’s Observa- ! e Madras Observatory, 383 ; Prof. Lodge’s Pioneers 415; the Proposed Observatory on Mont Blanc, irs having camer Spectra, Prof. E. C. Pickering, ho oto RCo hy of Solar Prominences, M. Deslandres, t (c 1891), Dr. Backlund, 438; a New Aste- pite: and his Markings, W. F. Denning, 439 ; , Prof. Tacchini, 453 ; Connection between n and Radiant Sunlight, Prof. Frank H. ven em Asteroids, 453; Prof. Newton on the piter on Comets, 453 ; Solar Observations, Prof. 5 WE. Wilson on the Absorption of Heat in nere, 453 ; Dr. Copeland on Bright Streaks 454 5 * Telescopic Work for Starlight Evenings, ning, 467 ; the Linear Arrangement of Stars, 478 ; Aberration of Light may exercise on Spectro- \ of Solar Prominences, M. Fizeau, 488 ; 1 of Balas- Pheaowens during first half of 1891, i, 488 ; Messrs. and Son’s New Orrery, 501 ; Wood, 504; Photographic Magni- ie: Scheiner, 526 ; Influence of Aberration tions of Solar Prominences, M. Fizeau, 530; of Periodic Comets, E. E. Barnard, of Tempel- Swift’s Comet, 551; the Sun’s we, A. M. Clerke, 572; Measurements of Lunar ,577; Two New Variable Stars, Rev. T. E. : Comet, 578 ; the Story of the Heavens, well Ball, F.R.S., 589; Distribution of Lunar . Very’s, 601; an Astronomer’s Work in a atory, Dr. David Gill, F.R.S., 603 ; Tempel- dic Comet, G. Bigourdan, 608 ; Personal Equa- it s, P. Stroovant, 608 ; the Zodiacal e, M. A. Veeder, 631 ; Comet ¢ 1891, 631 ; 5 —" First Satellite, 631

Ww = Mg, 493 J.C Forty Years in a Moorland Parish, 122 ne of the British Association at Cardiff,

nt Determination, Stas’s Work in, 134 , to Austrian Embassies, proposed, 575 » the Measurement of Hardness in Transparent

nat ‘Ambleside, Mr. Tuckwell, 475 a Rare Phenomenon, 494, 519, 541;

614; Prof. W.N. Hartley, F.R.S., 61 ek sige as related to, O. T. Sherman, 310

nts of, T. W. Backhouse, 541 ‘Light and, M. A. Veeder, 631

le! uateraions and the, Prof. J. Willard Association for the Advancement of 450; 5743 Exploration of Central Australia, ‘McPhee, 67 ; Meteorological Service of Australasia, est and Eggs of the Catbird, A.J. North, 207; Luminous the Australian Bush, Henry Deane, 233 ; Earth- in Italy and Australia, R. L. J. Ellery, FR. S., the Marsupial Mole, Notoryctes Lyphlops, P. L. Sclater, F.R.S., 449; Extraordinary Rainfall n, Charles Todd, 501; Olive Growing in, Principal

Ww. E., F.R.S.): Quadrant Electrometers, 166 : nat Current and Potential Difference Analogies in O Ea, ee Power, 237; Construction of Non- eet Mabed of Preparing, Drs. Noelting and

larthquake in the, 475

B.Sc. Exam., Lond. Univ. 1892, Edward J. Burrell, 565

Backhouse (T. W.), the Heights of Auroras, 541

Backlund (Dr.), Encke’s oe ¢ 1891, 438

Bacteriology: Les Virus, par Dr. S, Arloing, 27; Bacterio- logical and Chemical Examination of Potable Waters, A. E. S. C. Newman, 74; the British Institute of Preventive Medicine, 86 ; Leprosy Bacillus cultivated in Serum, by Drs. Rake and Buckmaster and Surgeon-Major Thomson, 161 ; Bacteria and their Products, Sims Woodhead, M.D., 246; Congress of Hygiene on Bacteriology, 419 ; Manuel Pratique d’Analyse Bactériologique des Eaux, Dr. Miquel, Prof. Percy F. Frankland, F.R.S., 513

Bailey (G. H.), University of London, 105

Baines (A. C. ), Soaring of Birds, 520

Baker (J. G., F.R.S.) : Hand-book of the Ferns of Kaffraria, T R. Sim, 75 ; ; European Botany, Vol. I., K. Richter, 100

Bakhuyzen (Prof. Van de Sande), on Variations in Latitude, 69

Ball (Sir R. Stawell, F.R.S.): on the Cause of an Ice Age, 480; the Story of the Heavens, 589

Ball (V., F.R.S.): Cetaceans in African Lakes, 198; the Koh-i- Nur, a Reply, 592

Balloons, the Aspiration Psychrometer and its Use in Balloons, Dr. R. Assmann, 512

Baltimore Fishing School, the, 549

Bang (Dr.), Tuberculosis, 395

Bangor University College, Electricity in the Physical Depart- ment, I

Barber (Mr. C. A ), appointed Superintendent of Agricultural Department of the Leeward Islands, 257

Barclay (Dr.), Death of, 435

Barlow (Dr.), Tuberculosis in Children, 397 x

Barnard (E. E.): Observations of the Zodiacal Counter Glow, 283 ; Physical Appearance of Periodic Comets, 551

Barnes (Lieutenant H. E.), Birds Nesting in Western India, 42

Barometer, the Aneroid, and Leibnitz, 40

Barometer at Ben Nevis Observatory in Relation to Wind, Dr. Buchan, 167

Barometric Papeemion, Erratic Track of a, Rev. W. Clement Ley, 150

Barometric Observations, Prof. Hellmann on, 66

Barrington (Sir Vincent) and Surgeon-General Bostock, the Hospital and Ambulance Organization of the Metropolitan Asylums Board for the Removal and Isolation of Infectious Diseases, 486

Basalt, the Specific Heat of, 456

Batelli’s (Signor) Exp-riments on Water-evaporation in Sun and in Shade, 136

Bateman (Dr.), ‘elected Associate of Paris Academy of Medicine,

351 Bateson (W.), Supernumerary Legs and Antenne in Beetles,


Beam (William) and Dr. Henry .Leffmann, Examination of Water for Sanitary and Technical Purposes, 102

Beare (Prof. Thomas Hudson), Translation of Luigi Cremona’s Graphical Statics, 221

Beaumont on Screw Propellers, 510

Becquerel (Edmond), Death of, 39

Becquerel (Henri) on Underground Temperatures, 632

Bees and Honey-dew, F. M. Burton, 343

Bees in New Zealand, G, M. Thomson on, 19

Bees, Remarkable Instance of F rugality in, W. H. Harris, 550

Beetle, fam. Curculionidz, as an Example of Protective Colora- tion, a New South Wales, Mr. Froggatt, 576

Beetles, Supernumerary Legs and Antenne in, W. Bateson,


Belgian Academy of Sciences, Subjects for Prize Competition Proposed by, 136

Bell (Alfred), Post- Tertiary Marine Deposits on South Coast of England, 191

Bell (John), a Dog Story, 521

Ben Nevis Observatory in Relation to Wind, Barometer at, Dr. Buchan, 167

Ben Nevis, the Winds of, R. T. Omond, A. Rankin, 191

Bendire (C.), on the Collection, &c., of Birds’ Eggs and Nests,

502 Bengal, Earthquakes in, 185 Bennett (A. R.), on vaeoynes Parcels Delivery, 510 Bennett (Alfred W.), Aérial Roots of the Mangrove, 370 Bent’s (Theodore) Investigation of Zimbabye Ruins, 451 Benué and the Kibbé, Major Claude M. Macdonald, 46 Berg (Herr), Snow-observation in Russia, 113



Supplement to Nature ; [ November 26, tot

Bergeron (Dr.), on Diphtheria, 369

Berget (Alphonse), Photography in Colours, Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S ,°194

Berkeley (Bishop) Memorial, the, 575

Berlin: Academy of Sciences, Recent Grants by, 136; the Imperial Physical and Technical Institution at, 154; Forma- tion of Union of Friends of Astronomy and Cosmical Physics, 206; Berlin University, 351

Berlioz (Prof.), Microcidine, a New Antiseptic, 232

Bernardinite, is it a Mineral or a Fungus ?, J. S. Brown, 310

Berne, the International Geographical Congress at, 358

Berthelot (Daniel) : Calorimetric Researches on Sugar-derived Humic Acid, 144 ; Iron-Carbonyl and Nickel-Carbonyl, 192 ; the Preparation of Iron-Carbonyl and Several New Reactions of Nickel-Carbonyl, 208 ; Heats of Combustion and Forma- tion of Nitrobenzenes, 360 ; Study of Chemical Neutralization of Acids and Bases by ineans of their Electric Conductivitie:,


Be-ant (W. H., F.R.S.), Solutions of Examples in Elementary Hydrostatics, Prof. A. G. Greenhill, F.R.S., 341

Bessemer (Sir Henry), Rolling of Steel Sheets direct from the Molten Metal, 578

Besson (A.), Phosphide of Boron, 288

Best Books, the, a Contribution to Systematic Bibliography, by William Swan Sonnenschein, 5

Bezold (Prof. W. von), on the Theory of Cyclones, 437

Bible Countries, Buried Cities and, George St. Clair, 540

Bibliography : the Best Books, a Contribution towards System- atic Bibliography, by William Swan Sonnenschein, 5; a Guide Book to Books, edited by E. B. Sargant and Bernhard Wishaw, 196; Bibliography of the Chemical Influence of Light, Dr. Alfred Tuckerman, 208; Katalog der Bibliothek der Deutschen Seewarte zu Hamburg, 318; Forthcoming Scientific Books, 462, 478

Bickerton (T. H.), Colour-blindness Generally Considered, 595

Bidgood (John), Cordylophora lacustris, 106

Bilwell (Shelford, F.R.S.): the Effect of an Electric Discharge upon the Condensation of Steam, 95; Effect of Heat upon Magnetic Susceptibility of Nickel, 187 ; Alum Solution, 565

Bigelow (Prof. Frank H.): the Polarization Theory of the Solar Corona, 355 ; Connection between Terrestial Magnetism and Radiant Sunlight, 453

Bigourdan (G,): Observations of Wolf’s Periodic Comet, 192 ; _Tempel-Swift’s Periodic Comet, 608

Biology : Miss Marshall’s Bequest to the Science and Art Depart- ment, 17 ; Sydney Biological Station, 39; A. R. Wallace’s Natural Selection and Tropical Nature, 40 ; Pycnogonids or Sea Spiders, 49; Animal Life on a Coral Reef, Dr. S. J. Hickson, 90; the Classification of the Tunicata in Relation to Evolution, Prof. W. A. Herdman, 130; Anatomy and Physiology of Protopterus annectens, Prof. W. N. Parker, 139; Nature of Excretory Processes in Marine Polyzoa, S. F. Harmer, 143; Marine Biolozical Association of the United Kingdom, 205; the Evolution of Animals, F. Priem, R. Lydekker, 243; Lessons in Elementary Biology, Prof. T. Jeffery Parker, F.R.S., Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., 290 ; the Anatomy of the Heloderma, Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, 294 ; D’Arsonval on Stimulating Muscles by Means of Light, 390 ; Opening Address in Section D of the British Association, by Francis Darwin, F.R.S., 407; Cordylophora lacustris, Henry Scherren, 445; Some Difficulties in the Life of Aquatic In- sects, Prof. L. C. Miall, 457; Die Organisation der Turbel- laria Accela, Dr. Ludwig von Graff, Prof. E. Ray Lankester, F.R.S., 465 ; Biological Functions of the Lecithines, Walter Maxwell, 471; Biological Bearings of Fact of Stronger Absorption by Water of Long than Short Light Waves, Herr Hufner, 478; Grenfell on the Structure of Diatoms, 481 ; Calderwood on Sea Fisheries, 481 ; J. T. Cunningham on the Reproduction of the Pilchard, 481; J. T. Cunningham on the Rate and Growth of Age of Sexual Maturity in Fish, 482; Prof. Herdman and J. A. Clubb on the Innervation of the Epipodial Processes of some Nudibranchiate Mollusca, 482; Prof. W. N. Parker on Respiration in Tadpoles, 482 ; Prof. Howes on the Classification of Fishes by their Re- productive Organs, 483; Prof. Howes on the Gills of Fishes, 483; Dr. Arthur Robinson on the Development of the Rat and the Mouse, 483; Prof. Marcus Hartog on Protoplasmic

. Rejuvenescence, 483; Francis Darwin, F.R.S., on the Artificial Production of. Rhythm in Plants, 484; Marine Piology, the Cruise of the /vestigator, Dr. A. Alcock, 501, 528; a Difficulty in Weismannism, Prof. Marcus Hartog,

> + te


613; Huxley Laboratory for Biological Research, and Marshall Scholarship, 627 Birch Oil, the Manufacture of, in Connecticut, 391 Birds, Antipathy (?) of, for Colour, 31 Birds’ Eggs and Nests, the Collection, &c., of, C. B 02 Bints Nesting in Western India, Lieutenant H. E, Barnes, Birds, the Soaring of, S. E. Peal, 56; A. C. Baines, 52 Birds of Victoria, the Insectivorous, C. French, 162 Birds, Wild, Protection Act, 65 Birmingham School of Medicine, Account of, 18 Bishop (Sereno E.), the Great Comet of 1882, 293 éf Bismuth, Thermo-electric Position of, Prof. Knott, 311 4 Black-Earth Steppe Region of East Kussia, the Northern Limi of, Korzchinsky, 326 4 Blackie’s Science Readers, 540 ean Blanchard (Emile), Proofs that Asia and America have bee recently connected, 335 ; 4 Blanckenhorn (Dr. Max), Geology and Physical Geography North Syria, Prof. Edward Hull, F.R.S., 99 : a Blanford (Henry F., F.R.S.), M. Faye’s Theory of Cyclones



34 a Blow-fly, Anatomy, Physiology, Morphology, and Development of the, B. Thompson Lowne, 123 eo! Board of Trade Committee on Electrical Standards, the Report of the, 417 a Boilers, Papers on, 20 Fe | Bologna Academy: 1000 Lire Gold Medal offered by Bologna Academy for Memoir on Best Means of Fire-Preventiot

303 s Bonney (Prof. T. G., F.R.S.) and General C. A. MeMahon the Crystalline Rocks of the Lizard District, 22; the Ice Age in North America, G. F. Wright, 537 B Books, the Best, a Contribution to Systematic Bibliography, by William Swan Sonnenschein, 5 a Books, a Guide-book to, E, B, Sargant and Bernhard Wishaw.

£ . 3

196 zi Bornet (Dr. Edouard), Linnean Society Gold Medal awarded to, Ill ; pede g Bornstein (R.), Connection between Air-pressure and Horn- angle of Moon, 281 a Bort (L. Teisserenc de), the Various Kinds of Gradients, 469 Bostock (Surgeon-General) and Sir Vincent Barrington, the

Hospital and Ambulance Organization of the Metropolitan Asylums Board for the Removal and Isolation of Infectious

Diseases, 486 ,, Boston (U.S.), Proposed Zoological Gardens in, 18, 529 a Botany: the Alpine Flora, T. D. A. Cockcrell, 6; J. Innes

Rogers, 6; Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano, 21 ; Botanical

Text-book, 41; the Classification of Eucalypts, 41; Death o

Dr. Richard Schomburgk, 65; a Concise Manual of Botany

for Students of Medicine and Science, Alex. Johnstone, 75 ;

Hand-book of the Ferns of Kaffraria, T. im, J. G,

Baker, F.R.S., 75; the Alpine Flora, J. Lovel, 83 ; the Kev

Bulletin, 87 ; Drawings for the Botanical Magazine bought

by the Kew Museum, 86; Expedition of D. Morris to th

West Indies, 87 ; European Botany, Vol. I., K. Richter,

G. Baker, F.R.S., 100; Missouri Botanical Garden, 101 ;

William Trelease, 588 ; Botanical Enterprise in the West Indies,

110; Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 114; Comparison of Minute Structure of Plant Hybrids with Parent Plants, Dr. J. A. Macfarlane, 119; Botanical Appointments in United States, 135; the Relationship between Plants and Animals, Prof. Stewart, F.R.S., 136; the Flora of Diamond Island, 7 Botting Helmsley, F.R.S., 138; Cotton Cultivation i Russian Turkestan, 163; Diseases of the Cocoa-Nut Leaf, M. C. Potter, 167 ; Botanical Wall Diagrams, S.P.C.K., 173. Kinds of Cacao in Cultivation in Ceylon, Dr. Henry Trimen, F.R.S., 185 ; the Species of Epilobium occurring North of Mexico, Dr. Trelease, 196 ; Drs, Bornmiiller and Sin 3 tenis’s Contemplated Expedition to Greece and Turkey in Asia, Prof. Penzig’s Contemplated Expedition to Massowah and Bogos, 206 ; the Flowers of the Pyrenees and their Fertilizatio by Insects, Prof. J. Macleod, 211 ; Disengagement of Oxygen by Plants at Low Temperatures, H. Jumelle, 216; the Spiked Star of Bethlehem (Ornithogalum pyrenaicum), Dr. R. A. Prior, 215 ; the True Nature of Callus, Spencer Moore, 216; Lieutenant Peary’s Projected Botanical Expedition Afoot to the North Pole, 231; Danger of Using Arsenic for the Prepa tion of Plants, 232 ; Influence of External Factors on the Smell of Plants, Herr Regel, 232; Botanical Gazette, 236, 335,

to | 26, 1891

Lndex ix

r Country’s Flowers, W. J. Gordon, 247 ; Obituary ‘Cardinal Haynald, 256; Flora of Tropical Africa, w Indian Labiate, Dr. D. Prain, 258; the Vegeta- ‘ibet, 260; are Seedlings of Hemerocallis fulva ‘Variable ?, Prof. Marcus M. Hartog, 274; the Origin ‘lora of Greenland, Clement Reid, 299; Relation ‘Insects and Forms and Characters of Flowers, T. jan, 335; Pines and Firs of Japan, Dr. Maxwell T. ar 3395 Botanical Survey of India, 347 ; Geo-Botanical Flora of European Russia, D. J. Litvinoff, 1 Roots of the White Mangrove, 304; Alfred W. 70; Acclimatization in Russia, 388; Botanical Club of the British Isles, 391; Francis Darwin, Growth-Curvatures in Plants, 407 ; Embryology ng Plants, Mdlle. C. Sokolowa, 437; Botany of Classics, 438 ; Abbildungen zur Deutschen Flora, , 467; Elementary Text-book of Botany for the ools, Edith Aitken, 467 ; Some of the Possibilities ic Botany, Prof. Geo. L. Goodale, 469; on the Systematic Botany Prof. John M. Coulter, 472; Sonference on Conifers, 475; Californian Trees 's, 477; Francis Darwin, F.R.S., on the Artificial of Rhythm in Plants, 484; Flowers and Insects, att-Elliott, 488 ; Sleep Movements in Plants, A. G. 493 ; Acclimatization of the Lacquer-Tree at Frank- Kein, 500; American Expeditions to Investigate exico, 501 ; Olive-growing in Australia, Principal 501; Cultivation of Tobacco in German New 502; ‘‘ Kammé,” a New Species of Truffle, A. ; Bush Friends in Tasmania, Mrs. L. A. Meredith, Fertilization of South African and Madagascar g Plants, C. F. S. Elliott, 528; the Distribution of Algz, G, Murray, 528 ; Oesterreichische Botanische ; Dr. Palmer’s Collections in Western and Arizona, 528; Some of the Possibilities of nic Botany, Prof. George Lincoln Goodale on, Cereals, 531; Vegetables, 532 ; Fruits, 532; Tim- Cabinet Woods, 534; Vegetable Fibres, 534; aterials, 534; Resins, &c., 534; Fragrant Plants, bition of Cone-bearing Trees, Royal Horticultural 548 5 Dr. Prain and the /xvestigator Cruise, 549 ;

ron in Assam and Burmah, Dr. King, 549;

attle-barks, J. H. Maiden, 579; Projected


er al | Congress at Genoa, 598; M. Paul ury’s Expedition to Mexico, 598; Variation of Compo- 0 of Jerusalem Artichokes at Different Periods of Growth,

enger (G. A. , Anatomy of Heloderma, 444 -mout Ba of ‘hie British Medical Association at, quake at, Henry Cecil, 614 on), the Fermentation of Bread, 336 Dielectric Properties of Mica at High Temperatures,

ick Orpen), Proposed Fellow of the Royal Society,

.), Pocket Electrometers, 262

%. N.), Newtonite and Rectorite, New Minerals of nite Group, 310

ger D., F.R.S.), a Manual of Forestry, William


ets, T. Turner on Red Blotches in, 455

.), on Lanthanum, 68 ¥

. Morize on the Climatology of, 437.

Projected Agricultural Mechanical College at San Paulo,

the Fermentation of, Léon Boutroux, 336

a (Dr. A.), Capture of a Supposed Gem Thief at Vienna,

oo tape Utilization of Carbonic Acid produced

ae on Oo » 303

iton Aquarium, Birth of Sea Lion at, 185

ton (Dr. Daniel G.): Races and Peoples, 124 ; Vocabularies | the Musquito Coast, 600

ol University College Calendar, 438

h Art, Gallery of, at South Kensington and the Science

Museum, 37, 255

ae: IATION: Meeting at Cardiff, General Pro- me, 65, 371; Preliminary Arrangements, 204, 280;

. ; the, 423; Arrangements for the Meeting at

Edinburgh in 1892, 161, 398; Inaugural Address at

rdiff by William Huggins, LL.D., F.R.S., 372

: leg

Section A (Mathematics and Physics)—Opening Address by Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, LL.D., F.R.S., President of the Section, 382; Prof. Newton on the Action of Jupiter on Comets, 453 ; W. E. Wilson on the Absorption of Heat in the Solar Atmosphere, 453; Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S., on whether the Ether behaves as a ‘Viscous Fluid, 454; Prof. D. E. Jones on Electric Waves in Wires, 454; Papers on Electrolysis, 454; Dr. Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S., on Double Lines in the Spectra of Gases, 454; Dr. Copeland on Bright Streaks on the Moon, 454; Prof. Oliver J. Lodge, F.R.S , on Light in Modifying the Effect of the Gravitational Attraction of the Sun, 454; Units and their Nomenclature, 454; Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S., on the Measurement of J.enses, and on a New Polarizer, 455; F. T. Trouton on the Propagation of Magnetization in Iron, 455

Section B (Chemistry)—Opening Address by Prof. W. C. Roberts-Austen, C.B., F.R.S., President of the Section, 399; Report of the Committee on the Formation of Haloid Salts, 455; Prof. Vivian B. Lewes on the Spontaneous Ignition of Coal, 455 ; Ludwig Mond on Nickel-carbon Oxide and Metallic Nickel obtained therefrom, 455; Iron- carbon Oxide, 455; William Crookes, F.RS., on the Electrical Evaporation of Metals and Alloys, 455; T. Turner on the Cause of the Red Blotclies on the Surface of Brass Sheets, 455; A. P. Laurie on the Electromotive Forces of Various Alloys, 456: Prof. Roberts-Austen, F.R.S., on his Self-recording Pyrometer, 456; A, Vernon- Harcourt and F. W. Humphery on the Relation between the Composition of a Double Salt and the Composition and Temperature of the Liquid in which it is formed, 456; Report on the Isomeric Naphthalene Derivatives, 456 ; Profs. Riicker and Roberts-Austen on the Specific Heat of Basalt, 456; Prof. F. Clowes on an Apparatus for testing Safety-lamps, 456; Prof. C. M. Thompson on Rare Earths and New Elements, 456; Prof. Ramsay on the Liquids obtained by passing Excess of Hydrogen Sulphide into Solutions of c.rtain Metals, 456: J. J. Sudborough on the Action of Nitrosyl Chloride on Unsaturated Carbon Compounds, 456; C. G. Mooron the Disposal of Sewage, 456; A. H. Allen on treating Glycerides with Alcoholic Potash, 456 ,

Section C (Geology)—Prof. Boyd Dawkins, F.R:S., on the Channel Tunnel Boring and the Discovery of Coal, 479; W. Topley, F.R.S., on the Origin of Petroleum, 479; Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., on the Discovery of the Olenellus Zone in the North-West Highlands of Scotland, 479; Sir Archibald Geikie, F.R.S., on the Recent Work of the Geological Survey in the Archean Gneiss of the North- West Highlands of Scotland, 480; Sir R. S. Ball on the Cause of an Ice Age, 480; Rev. Dr. Crosskey oa Distribution of Erratics in England and Wales, 480; Prof. Wright on the Ice Age in North America, 480; Report on the Elbolton Cave near Skipton, 480; Dr. Hicks on the Silurian and Devonian Rocks of Pembrokeshire, 480 ; Palzontological Papers, 481

Section D (Biology)—Opeuing Address by Francis Darwin, F.R.S., President of the Section, 407; Grenfell on the Structure of Diatoms, 481 ; Calderwood on Sea Fisheries, 481; J. T. Cunningham on the Reproduction of the Pilchard, 481; J. T. Cunningham on the Rate and ~ Growth of Age of Sexual Maturity in Fish, 482; Prof. Herdman and J. A. Clubb on the Innervation of the Epipodial Processes of some Nudibranchiate Mollusca, 482; Prof. W. N. Parker on Respiration in Tadpoles, 482; Prof. Howes on the Classification of Fishes by their Reproductive Organs, 483 ; Prof. Howes on the Gills of Fishes, 483 ; Dr. Arthur Robinson on the Development of the Rat and the Mouse, 483; Prof. Marcus Hartog on Protoplasmic Rejuvenescence, 483; Francis Darwin, F.R.S., on the Artificial Production of Rhythm in Plants,


Section E (Geography)—Opening Addres; by E. G. Raven- stein, F.R.G.S., F.S.S., President of the Section, 423 ; Mrs. French Sheldon on East Africa, 508; Dr. Robert Felkin on Acclimatization, 508 ; Colonel Holdich on the Application of Indian Geographical Survey Methods to Africa, 508 ; H. T. Crook on our Ordnance Survey, 508 ; J. Scott Keltie on Geographical Education, 509

Section G (Mechanical Sctence)—G. Chatterton on Sewerage, 509; W. Key on Ventilation, 509 ; Sir Edward Reed on

mber 26, 1891

the Proposed Channel Tubular Railway, 509 ; Prof. W Robinson on Petroleum Engines, 509; W. H. Preece, F.R.S., on the London and Paris Telephone, 510; Prof. G. Forbes on Electric Motors, 510; A. R. Bennett on Underground Parcels Delivery, 510 ; Major R. de Villamil on “Screw Propellers, 510; Mr. Beaumont on Screw Pro- pellers, 510 Section H (Anthropology)—Opening Address by Prof, F.

Max Miiller, President of the Section, 428; Prof. R. K. Douglas on the Social and Religious Ideas of the Chinese, 510; Major J. W. Powell on Indian Languages, 511; the Marquis of Bute on the Language of Teneriffe, 511; Dr. E. B. Tylor, F.R.S.,.on Savage Religion, 511; S. E. Peal on the. A/orong of the Natives of Asam, 511; Dr. Garson on Human Remains found in Yorkshire, 511 ; Miss Buckland on the ‘‘ Mountain Chant,” 511; Dr. S. A. K. Strahan on Instinctive Criminality, 511; E. H. Man on Nicobar Pottery, 512

British Earthworms, Identification of Templeton’s, Rev. Hil-

deric Friend, 273 British Institute of Preventive Medicine, 86, 97, 124, 301, 323 British Medical Association at Bournemouth, Meeting of, 161,

Britch Museum: Specimens of Asiatic Wild Sheep at, 40; British Museum in 1890, Decrease in Number of Visitors to, 280, 352; Additions to the Bird Department, 451 ; Syste- matic List of the Frederick E, Edwards Collection of British Oligocene and Eocene Mollusca in the, Richard Bullen Newton, 610

British Rule, South Africa from Arab Domination to, 564

Brocken Spectres in a London Fog, A. W. Clayden, 95

Brodie (Fredk. J.), the Recent Epidemic of Influenza, 283

Brooks (Prof. W. ae the Oyster, a Popular Summary of a Scientific Study, 4

Brown (J. Allen), Technical Education in Middlesex, 65

Brown (J. S. a4 Bernardinite, is it a Mineral or a Fungus ?, 310

Brunner (J. T., M.P.), Elected President of the Sunday Society,


Briinnow (Francis), Obituary Notice of, 449

Brunton (Dr. T. Lauder, F.R.S.): Supplement to the Text- book of Pharmacology, 41; on the Progress of Medicine, 327

Brussels Academy of Sciences, 24, 240, 312, 440, 560

Buchan (Dr.), Barometer at Ben Nevis Observatory in Relation to wind, 167

Buckland (Miss), on the ‘‘ Mountain Chant,” 511

Buckmaster (Dr.), Leprosy Bacillus cultivated in Serum by, 161

Buckmaster (J. C.), County Councils and Technical Education, 88

Buchner (Dr.), Immunity, Natural and Acquired, 420

Buda-Pesth Academy of Sciences, Sir J. D. Hooker elected Foreign Member of, 257