This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project to make the world's books discoverable online.

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the publisher to a library and finally to you.

Usage guidelines

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About Google Book Search

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web

atjhttp : //books . qooqle . com/

I

^0

in c

U

THE HISTORY

MODERN CIVILIZATION

A HANDBOOK

BASED UPON H. 0U8TAVE DUCOUDBAT8 " HISTOIKE SOMMATRK DE LA CIVILISATION"

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS

*■ IW •• >

LONDON: CHAPMAN AND HALL

LIMITED 1891

LONDON :

PRINTED BY J. S. VIRTUE AND CO., LIMITED,

CITY ROAD.

4J-72f

7

J

PREFACE.

The aim of the Handbook of "The History of Modern Civili- zation"— a continuation and completion of "The History of Ancient Civilization," published in the same form more than a year ago is to give to young students and general readers a comprehensive view of the progress of the nations, as far as it is known, out of the deoadenoe of ancient civilisation, through medieval barbarism, until they emerge in modem and advance to contemporary civilization. It is hoped that it may stimulate younger readers to pursue historical studies further, and may occasionally be useful to older students as a grouping together of knowledge already acquired.

Though based on M. Ducoudray's " Histoire Sommaire de la Civilisation," this handbook is rather an adaptation than a trans- lation ; for M. Ducoudray's standpoint is so exclusively French, that it has been necessary not only to omit much and to correct freely, but also to fill numerous and extensive gaps in his know- ledge of England and other countries.

J.V.

January, 1891.

CONTENTS.

BOOK I.— THE NEW RELIGION. CHAPTER I.

OHKIBTIANITY REORGANIZATION AND FALL OF THE ROMAN

EMPIRE.

Buum abt. The Preparation for the Advent of Christianity ; the Con- dition of Religion and Philosophy in the Roman World Unity of the Roman World; the Right of Universal Citizenship— The Christian Religion— The Persecutions— The Primitive Organiza- tion of the Church: the Catacombs— The Apologists: Tertullian Influence of Christianity The Decadence of the Roman Empire ; its Causes ; the Absence of a Constitution The Power and Rivalry of the Pr&torians and the Armies ; Civil Wars Invasion of th* Barbarians Attempts fit Restoration in the Fourth Century ; Diocletian ; the Tetrarchy The Work of Constantino ; the Im- perial Power ; the Great Officers— Separation of the Military and Civil Powers Division of the Provinces into Prefectures, Dioceses, Ac— The New Nobility— The Classos The Curiales— The Inferior Classes; the Plebs; Husbandmen— Slaves The Taxes— Constan- tino and Christianity ; the Edict of Milan (313) Organisation of the Church; Bishops, Archbishops, &o. The Council of Niccea Constantinople The Pagan Reaction under Julian The Heresies ; the Fathers of the Greek Church— The Fathers of the Latin Church— Hermits and Monks— Final Causes of the Fall of the Roman Empire, and of the Suooess of the Invasions What Rome has given to the World The Legacy of Antiquity. --(Note* : The Roman Calendar— BasUicas transformed into Churches) .

viii CONTENTS.

BOOK II.— THE MIDDLE AGES. CHAPTER II.

THE BAKBAKIAN INVASIONS.— GEBMANIO SOCIETY.

PAOX

Svmmary.— The Middle Ages— The New Races— The Germane : Agri- cultural and Military Life The Germanic Family The Ger- manic Tribes Germanic Royalty— The Assemblies Justice Individuality Slavery amongst the Germans Religion Bar- barian Kingdoms, Visigoths, Vandals, &c. Destruction of the Western Empire (476)— The Ostrogoths: Theodoric— The Bar- barian Laws Decadence of the Barbarian Kingdoms Mili- tary Supremacy of the Franks— Frank and Roman Society: the Monarchy The Classes Finance; Justice The Church and Barbarian Society : the Bishops The Right of Asylum; the Ton- sure ; the Clerks The Councils : Excommunication— Wealth of the Church The Monasteries The Papacy Alliance between the Frank Kings and the Church: Accession of the Carolingians The Temporal Power of the Popes— Europe in the Eighth Century. (Notes : The Salic Law— The Monasteries) 41

CHAPTER HI.

THE EASTERN EMPIRE. RESTORATION OF THE EMPIRE OF

THE WEST.

Summary. The Eastern Empire : Justinian Justinian's Legislative Work : the Monuments of Roman Law Luxury of the Emperors of the Eiist: Games in the Circus Byzantine Art Painting: Mosaics— The Sect of Iconoclasts— The Greek Schism (867—1064) Weakness and Longevity of the Byzantine Empire The West : Charlemagne and his Wars Restoration of the Western Empire : Coronation of Charlemagne (800) The Administration of Charlemagne: Roman Traditions Ecclesiastical Organization The Intellectual Renaissance Germanic Traditions— Character of Charlemagne's Work : its Results. (Note : Sovereigns of the Eastern Empire) 66

CONTENTS. IX

CHAPTER IV.

THE ARABS. THE CALIPHATES OF BAGDAD AND OOBDOVA.

MUSSULMAN CIVILIZATION.

pAoa

Suxkaby.— The Invasion from the South ; its Character : the Arabs Mahomet and his Religion The Koran The Ulema: the Imauma Social and Political Influence of Mahomedanism Preaching by the Sword The Arab Empire : the two Caliphates Prosperity of the Caliphate of Bagdad: Commerce— The Cali- phate at Cordova : Prosperity of Spain Arab literature— Science Art Character and Influence of Arab Civilization. (NoU: Some Verses of the Koran) 80

CHAPTER V.

THE FEUDAL SYSTEM.

SmocAST.— Dismemberment of Charlemagne's Empire— Feudalism- Origin of Feudalism Subordination of the Land ; the Edict of Morten (847)— Public Offices become hereditary; Edict of Kiersy- sur-Oise (877)— Social Organization; the Nobility— The Clergy— The Inferior Classes— Political Disorganization ; Feudal Monarchy Feudal Administration, War, Justice, and Finance— Feudal Activity and Independence— Defects of the Feudal System . . 96

CHAPTER VI.

FEUDAL AND CHRISTIAN EUROPE FROM THE ELEVENTH TO THE FOURTEENTH CENTURIES.

Summaby.— Efforts of the Church to counteract Disorder ; the Truce of God— Distant Expeditions— The Enfranchisement of the Church ; the Investitures; Pope Gregory VII. (1073— 1085)— Religious Unity; Theocracy— The Crusades; their Causes— Duration and Character of the Crusades (1096— 1270)— Political and Economio Results of the Crusadefr/Chivalry— The Monarchies ; the Cape- tians in France ; the Feudal Monarchy ; Commencement of the Administration— Alliance of the Capetians with the Church and People— England ; Contrast -between English and French Feu- dalism—Spain ; the Crusade against the Moors; Character of the

CONTENTS.

PAGE

Spanish Nobility Italian Feudalism Germany ; Progress of Ger- man Feudalism The German Empire in the Middle Ages The Papacy ; Rivalry between the Sacerdotal Power and the Empire (1073 1250) Results; the Ruin of the two Ambitions; Progress of a National Spirit amongst the Populations Progress of the Urban Populations; Imperial German Cities The Italian Re- publics ; the Democracy in Florence ; the Aristocracy in Venice The French Communes New Cities; the Middle Classes— The Third Estate Advantages and Results of Communal Liberty Dangers and Decline of the Communal Movement The Country ; Progress of Enfranchisement; the Parishes; the Statutes of Louis X. (1316)— Origin of Public Liberties ; the States-General in France (1302) The Great Charter in England (1215) ; the English Parliament (1258— 1295)— The Spanish Cones . . 109

CHAPTER VII.

SOCIETY IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

Summary.— Society in the Middle Ages The Nobility; Manne Armorial Bearings Tournaments Meals The Commoners The Feudal Family The Rights of Primogeniture The Government of the Church; the Councils The Bishops The Monasteries; New Religious Orders; the Carthusians The Franciscans and Dominicans Ritual ; Religious Festivals Superstitions Heresies Industry The Corporations Commerce ; the Parisian Ex- change ; Restriction and Taxes— The Jews ; Bills of Exchange- Maritime Commerce ; Venice ; Genoa ; the Hanseatic League Travels; Marco-Polo Education; the Paris Schools and Uni- versity— Instruction ; Scholasticism Nominalism and Realism Philosophy and Theology; the Great Doctors Formation of Languages; the French Language— Epic Poetry; The Chanton* <U gesU— Allegoric Poetry Southern Poetry ; the Troubadours Birth of the Theatre Prose; History Law; Revival of the Roman Law ; the Sumptuary Laws The Sciences ; Alchemy Italian Language and Poetry ; Dante, Petrarch Art in Italy— French Art ; Military Architecture— Religious Architecture ; the Romance Style; the Gothic Style Sculpture Music in the Middle Ages— Civilization in the Thirteenth Century— The Four- teenth Century ; Decline of the Feudal System ; Transformation of Society. (Notes : Scholastics and Doctors of the Church— Troubadours Chroniclers— Savants, Physicians, Astronomers) . 132

CONTENTS, XI

BOOK III.— MODERN TIMES. CHAPTER VIH.

MODERN STATES IM THS FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH GBNTtTBIES. GREAT MARITIME DISCOVERIES.

pAoa Summary. Great Invention* and Great Discoveries Modem Times Evolution in Political Order ; Progress of Monarchy in France- Decline of the Feudal System in England ; Wan of the Rosea ; the Tndora The Spanish Monarchy Division of Germany ; Partition of Italy Formation and Greatness of Austria Power of Kings ; European Wars The Great Maritime Discoveries ; the Portuguese Discoveries by the Spaniards ; Christopher Columbus ; the New World (1492)— Discovery of the Pacific Ocean ; the First Voyage Round the World (1621) ; Mexico and Peru— Colonial Policy of Spain and Portugal Commercial ^Monopoly Consequence of the' Maritime Discoveries ; Development of Commerce Diffusion of Gold and Silver Money Change of the Commercial Routes Move- able Wealth . 181

CHAPTER IX

THE RENAI8SANGE IN THE FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH CENTURIES.

Summary. The Renaissance; the Circumstances that aided it The Renaissance in Italy ; the Humanists Italian literature The Poets ; Ariosto, Tasso History; Politics Machiavelli Guicdardini The Humanists in France— The College of France— Erasmus— French Literature in the Fifteenth Century—Poetry in the Sixteenth Century Marot, Ronsard, Jodelle law History Philosophy Ramus, Montaigne, Rabelais Literature in the Sixteenth Century Spanish Literature Cervantes Lope de Vega Portugal ; Camoens Birth and Brilliancy of English Literature— Shakespeare (1664— 1616)— The Birth of Science— Copernicus (1493—1643)— Tycho Brahe The Reform of the Calendar Mathematics Medicine : Paracelsus, Vesalius, Ambroise Pare— -Astrology and Sorcery The Renaissance of Art in Italy— Architecture: Brunel- leaohi and Bramante Michael Angelo French Architecture Philibert Delorme Pierre Lesoot Italian Sculpture French Sculpture— Painting : the Earliest Italian Masters of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries Giotto, Fra Angelico, Masaccio— The

Xll CONTENTS.

PAOB

Earliest Flemish Artists ; the Invention of Painting in Oil (1410) ; the Brothers Van Eyck— Character of Italian Painting, Pagan and Christian Subjects— The Italian Schools ; the Florentine School ; Perugino, Leonardo da Vinci (1452—1519) The Roman School: Michael Angelo (1474— 1664)— Kapha el (1483— 1520)— School of Lombardy : Correggio (1494 1634)— Venetian School : Giorgio Barbarelli (1477—1611), Titian (1477— 1576)— Tintoretto, Paul Veronese Bolognese School: the Carracci Painting in Spain Painting in France— Flemish Painting G-erman Painting : Holbein, Albert Durer— Ceramics : Bernard Palissy Music (Note : The Principal Scientific) Men of the Sixteenth Century) .... 194

CHAPTER X.

THE REFORMATION.

Summary.— The Religious Reformation, its Causes— Luther (1483 1546) ; Character of his Reformation The Reformation in the Northern Countries The Reformation in England The Reformation in Switzerland ; Zwingle ; Calvin (1609— 1664)— The Principles and Consequences of Calvinism Restoration of Catholicism ; Religious Wars Division of Europe between Catholicism and Protestantism Influence of the Protestant Reformation upon Politics, and upon the Economic and Intellectual Movement ...... 238

CHAPTER XI.

THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY RELIGION POLITICS TRADE AND FINANCE.

Summary.— Protestantism and Catholicism in the Seventeenth Century The Thirty Tears* War in Germany The Presbyterians and Puri- tans in England ; the Revolutions of 1640 and 1688 Religious Wars in France under Louis XIII. ; the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes under Louis XIV. Influence of the Religious Revolution on Society Character of Christianity in the Seventeenth Century Religious Orders for Women ; Sisters of Charity ; Saint Vincent de Paul Political Europe in the Seventeenth Century ; the Great Wars ; Progress of Military Art The European Equilibrium ; the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) ; Diplomacy Preponderance of France ; the Wars of Louis XIV. Internal Policy of the Kingdoms ; Triumph of Absolute Monarchy in France The Monarchy o Louis XIV.— The Central Power ; Provincial Administration--

CONTENTS. Xiii

FAQS

Police, the Army, Justice, Finance—The Church— The Monarch and Economic Interests— Results and Vices of Absolute Monarchy in France Absolute Monarchy in Spain— Monarchy in the various States of Europe— The Stuarts in England— The Revolutions of 1640 and of 1688— The Declaration of Rights ; the Constitutional Monarchy— The Eoonomio Movement— Maritime and Colonial Em- pire of Holland— England, her First Colonies ; the Navigation Act Economic Progress of France ; Sully, Richelieu Colbert's Ser- vices; Development of French Industry Colbert's Theories, the Protective System ; the System of Balance— Internal Commerce— The Navy and the Mercantile Fleets Commercial Companies, Colonies . 247

CHAPTER XH.

CRBRATUBB, SCIENCE, AND ABT8 IN THE SEVENTEENTH OENTUBT.

Svmkabt. The Intellectual Movement ; French Society in the Seven- teenth Century ; Conversation ; Wit French literature ; Taste ; Malherbe ; the Authors of the first half of the Seventeenth Century, or the Age of Richelieu— Classical Tragedy ; Oorneille (1606 1684) Renaissance of Philosophy ; Prose ; Descartes ; Pascal Authors of the Reign of Louis XIV. ; the King's Personal Influence Poetry : Racine, Moliere, Boileau Eloquence in the Pulpit : Bourdaloue, Bossuet, Fen&on Madame de Sevignt ; La Bruyere La Fontaine— The Quarrel between the Ancients and Moderns— The Opera; Quinault— Memoirs; History Philosophy; Malebranche Education ; the Learned Societies— Origin of the Periodical Press —Literature in England : Ben Jonson, Baoon— Milton (1608—1674) Bunyan Locke (1632— 1704)— Holland ; the Jew Spinoza- Germany; Leibnitz Spain ; Calderon ; Literary Decadence Science, Mathematics— Astronomy : Kepler (1671 1630) ; Galileo (1564—1642) ; Newton (1642— 1727)— Physical Science ; Bacon's Experimental Method— Galileo, Toricelli, Pascal, Mariotte— Steam ; Denis Papin— Natural Science ; the Botanical Gardens ; Tournefort Medicine— The Arts ; French Architecture— Sculpture ; Puget Painting ; the Italian School ; Guercino, Albano, Domenichino, Salvator Rosa— Painting in Spain ; Ribera, 'Velasquez, Murillo— French Painting; Nicholas Poussin, Claude Lorraine Flemish Artists in France ; Philip de Champaigne ; Van der Meulen Greatness of the Flemish School : Rubens, Van Dyck, Jordaens Animal Painters ; Snyders— The Painters of Genre ; David Tenders —The Dutch School ; Rembrandt— Gerard Dow, Terburg, Metsu Ruysdael, Hobbema— The Results of the Seventeenth Century . 271

XIV CONTENTS.

CHAPTER Xm.

THE ARTS, SCIENTIFIC AND POLITICAL MOVEMENT OF THE EIGHTEENTH OENTUBY.

TAOK

Sukkaby.— New Character of Art in the Eighteenth Century— Architec- ture— Sculpture Artistic Furniture of Modern Times The Styles of Louis XIV., Louis XV., and Louis XVI. French Painting- Painting in Germany and England The Scientific Movement; Mathematicians; Euler, d'Alembert, Clairaut, Lagrange— Astro- nomy ; Bradley, Herschell, Maupertuis, Mechain, Delambre Laplace The Physical Sciences; Thermometers; Air Balloons Steam Engines ; Newoomen, James Watt— Electricity Franklin ; lightning Conductors Dynamic Electricity ; Galvani and Volta Chemistry ; Priestley, Scheelp, Lavoisier The Natural Sciences ; Buffon, Linnaeus Medicine ; Jenner The Institutions for the Deaf and Dumb and for the Blind ; the Abbe* de l'Bpee ; Valentine Hatiy French Literature in the Eighteenth Century; the Followers of the Traditions of the Preceding Century; Massillon, Saint-Simon Decadenoe of Poetry Voltaire the Dramatist Voltaire the Author, his Historical Works— Voltaire the Philosopher French Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century; Condillac, Helvetius, the "Encyclo- pedia," d'Alembert, Diderot The Political Writers ; Montesquieu, the " Esprit des Lois " Jean- Jacques Rousseau ; the " Contrat Social ; " " Emile " Birth of Political Economy ; Gournay, Quesnay, Adam Smith— The Novel ; Lesage, Bernardin de Saint- Pierre— Prose Comedies ; Marivaux, Beaumarohais Character and Influence of French Literature in the Eighteenth Century English Literature ; The Essayists ; Addison The Novel ; Defoe, Fielding Poetry in England— Philosophy ; History ; Eloquence— German Literature; Leasing Poetry; Elopstock— Goethe Schiller— Wie- land German Philosophy ; Kant Italian Literature Music ; its Progress in Modern Times ; Rameau, Gluok, Pergolesi, Gre'try —The German School Bach, Handel, Haydn— Mozart . . .302

CHAPTER XIV.

ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL EUBOPE IN THE EIGHTEENTH OENTUBY. CAUSES OF THE FBENCH REVOLUTION OF 1789.

StnacABY . The Economio Movement in the Eighteenth Century ; Insti- tution of Credit Law's System; the Bank Note Geographical Discoveries— Maritime Commerce; the Colonies; Colonial Power

CONTENTS. XV

FAG*

of England The Colonial System of Modern States Colonial Produce Emancipation of the English Colonies in America ; the United States— Industry in Europe; French Industry— Industry and Commerce in the Central and Northern Countries of Europe- Political State of Europe ; the Latin Slavs ; the Civilisation of Eastern Europe; Poland— The Partition of Poland (1772, 1793, 1796) Origin and Development of the Kingdom of Prussia Frederic U. (1740—1786) ; the City of Berlin— The Greeks and Slavs ; Formation and Progress of the Russian Empire— Peter the Great (1672-1725)— St. Petersburg (1703)— The Work of Peter the Great— Catherine II. (1762— 1796)— Character of Russian Civi- lization— The Scandinavian States; Stockholm, Copenhagen Austria; the Reforms of Joseph II. The Principalities of Ger- many and the Holy Roman Empire Portugal, Pombal The Bourbon Dynasty in Spain; Reforms of El Conde d'Aranda— Italy— Results of the Work of Modern Times— State of France in 1789 Monarchical Principles The Feudal Constitution of the Government and Administration Justice Finance— The Army The Church Feudal Character of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce Character of Society Political, Eoonomio, and Social Causes of the Revolution 334

BOOK IV.— THE CONTEMPORARY PERIOD. CHAPTER XV.

THE FBENOH BE VOLUTION.

8umcA&Y.— General Character of the Revolution, its Philosophical and Classical Spirit— The Social, Economic, and Political Aim of the Revolution— The Social Work of the Constituent Assembly; the Principles of Equality ; the Night of the 4th of August— Civil Equality— Equality in the Family— Political Action ; the Principles of 1789— Administrative Reforms, Political Unity ; the Departments —Financial Reforms— The Civil Constitution of the Clergy— Repre- sentative Government ; the Constitution of 1791— Economic Reform; the Development of Small Landowners ; Relief of Agriculture- Liberty of Industry and Commerce— Effort to Return to Credit ; the Assignats ; the Assembly and Law's System— Result of the Work of the Constituent Assembly— The Legislative Assembly ;

XVI CONTENTS.

PAOV

Fall of the Monarchy (10th of August, 1792)— The Republic ; the Convention (1792 1796)— Divisions and Violence of the Convention —The Thermidorian Reaction— The Constitution of the Year III.— Labours and Creations of the Convention— The Directory (1796— 1799); the Coups d'Etat— Social Disorder— Financial Disorder— The Army ; the Law of Conscription Preponderance of the Army; the Coup d'Etat of the 18 and 19 Brumaire (9th and 10th of Novem- ber, 1799) 367

CHAPTER XVI.

THB CONSULATE AND THE EMPIKE NAPOLEONIC EUBOPE

DIFFUSION OF FBENOH IDEAS.

Summary. The Consulate ; Constitution of the Tear VIII. Plebiscites —The Electoral System; the Lists of Notabilite— Administrative Reorganization— Justice ; the Courts of Appeal ; the Civil Code— The New Financial System ; the Control and Collection of Taxes Religious Peace; the Concordat (1801— 1802)— The Legion of Honour (1802) ; Public Instruction, the Lycees Economic Reforms; Credit, the Bank of France— The Work of the Consulate— The Empire ; the Senatus-Consultum of the Tear XII. (1804)— The Great Dignitaries ; the New Nobility— Napoleon's Work ; Military Art Finance— The Codes Public Works Industry— Exhibitions —Industrial Consequences of the Continental Blockade The Univer- sity— (1806) Imperial Absolutism The French Empire and Europe in 1810 Diffusion of Ideas of French Revolution in Europe ; Belgium, Holland, the Rhenish Provinces, Switzerland— Effect of French Revolution on Italy— Simplification of the Germanic Chaos Effect of French Revolution on Germany Effect of French Revolution on Spain; the Constitution of 1812 Prussia ; Reforms of Stein and Scharnhorst— Effect of French Revolution on Sweden and Russia Principles of the Revolution turned against Napoleon \

CHAPTER XYII.

ETJBOPEAN GOVERNMENTS AND MODERN LIBERTIES SINGE 1815.

Summary.— Europe in 1815— The Holy Alliance— The Different Govern- ments in France since 1816 ; the Restoration (1815 1880) ; the Charter of 1814 Attempts at Political, Economic, and Social Re-

CONTENTS. xvii

action— The Political Results of the Restoration; Representative Government ; the Responsibility of Ministers— The Monarchy of July ; Parliamentary Government Property Suffrage Political Consequences of the Economic Revolution ; Progress of the Indus* trial Classes; Socialism— The Republic of 1848 ; Universal Suffrage ; the Constitution of 1848— The Constitution of 1862— The Second Empire and its Transformations (1852— 1870)— The National Assem- bly of 1871 ; the Third Republic ; the Constitution of 1876— Political Results of the Contemporary Epoch in France European Powers since 1815 ; Conflict between Modern Ideas and the Ancien Regime The Great Wars since 1848— Europe as it now is— Progress of Liberal Ideas ; Parliamentary Government England : Progress of Liberal Ideas since 1816 ; Catholic Emancipation (1829) ; Parlia- mentary Reform Bill (1881—1832); Abolition of Slavery (1834) ; the Poor Laws— Sir Robert Peel's great Economic Reforms; the Income Tax ; Abolition of the Corn Laws (1846) ; Repeal of the Navigation Laws (1849); liberty Granted to the Colonies— Parlia- mentary Reforms in 1867 and 1884— England and Ireland— The English Constitution ; the Government ; Parliament The Aristo- cracy, the Gentry ; Local Administration, Parishes, Counties, Justice Character of the English Nation Belgium and its Con- stitution (1831) Constitutional Monarchy in Spain (1837) ; Portugal —Holland: Constitution of 1848— The Swiss Confederation; the Federal Constitution Denmark Sweden : Constitution of 1866— Kingdom of Italy— The Holy See— Constitutional Austria (1861— 1867) ; Austrian and Hungarian Parliaments— Constitutional Rule in Prussia (1850— 1867)— The German Imperial Parliament (1871) ; Military Power of the German Empire— Russia : the Emancipation of the Serfr (1861)— Territory of the Principal States ; Population- Military Power Maritime Power Financial Power Political Europe at the Present Time ......... 408

CHAPTER XVIIL

LITERATURE ATO ART IX THE NINE TEE JCTH CENTURY.

Summaht. Renovation of Literature : Revival of Religious and Poetic Feeling; Chateaubriand— Ma lame de Stael— The Literary Move- ment under the Restoration; Influence of Foreign Literatures Lyrical Poetry; Lamartine (1790— 1869)— Victor Hugo (1802— 1855) Dispute between the Ciassici»ts and Romanticists— Victor Hugo and the Drama— Victor Hugo's last Works— Casimir Dela- vigne; Beranger— Poetry since 1830; Alfred de Musset (1810— 1857)— Tne Theatre since 1830— Novels— The Historical Move-

b

XVU1 CONTENTS.

PAGB

ment; Augustin Thierry; Guizot— Thiers— Mignet, Michelet— Erudition, learned Societies— The Philosophical Movement ; Royer- CoUard ; Cousin ; the various Schools The Religious Movement- Political Economy— Parliamentary Eloquence— The Press— Literary Criticism English Literature ; Poetry ; the Lake School— Byron, Shelley, Tennyson, Browning, Swinburne— Walter Scott The Historical Novel— Charles Dickens— History and Philosophy— Maoaulay— German literature— Italian Literature— Art : David and his School— Gros; Gerard— The Classicists and the Romanticists; Ingres ; Idealism— Gericault— Eugene Delacroix— Paul Delaroche ; Ary Scheffer— Artists since 1830; Horace Vernet— Meissonier— Hippolyte Flandrin; Cahanel Painting in Germany, England, Belgium, &c. Sculpture Architecture Music, the Classical School The Great Operas : Rossini, Donizetti, Meyerbeer, Auber, &o. Comic Operas : Boieldieu, Adam, Auber, Herold, &c. . . 467

CHAPTER XIX.

THE SCIENCES AND THBIB APPLICATION TO INDUSTRY.

Summary.— The Scientific Movement ; Natural Sciences : Cuvier ; Geof- froy Saint-Hilaire— Alexander von Humboldt Elie de Beaumont ; Flourens Evolution > Darwin : Wallace Mathematical and Physical Sciences : Ampere ; Arago ; Biot (Erstedt ; Bunsen ; Faraday; Humphry Davy— Gay -Lussao Dumas; Balard— Astro- nomy : Arago ; Le Verrier Meteorological Observations Medicine Physiology: Claude Bernard Application of the Physical Sciences ; Navigation by Steam Locomotives, Railways ; Stephen- son ; Seguin— Electro-magnetism and the Telegraph Wheatstone and Morse's System of Telegraphy— Electricity as an Industrial Agent, Ruhmkorff's System— Artificial Light : lighthouses— Gas Light The Electric Light Air Balloons— Artesian Wells— Sus- pension Bridges— Photography— The Telephone— The Phonograph —Application of Chemistry The Scientific Movements of the Nineteenth Century 489

CHAPTEB XX.

ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATIONS AND MOBAL PROGRESS.

Summary.— Agriculture Agricultural Shows and Societies Agriculture in Europe— Industry ; Mechanical Processes ; First Experiments in the Eighteenth Century; Arkwright (1732—1792); Cotton Spinning;

CONTENTS. XIX

FAOB

the Spinning-Jenny— Flax and Hemp Spinning ; Philippe de Girard Silk Spinning and Weaving ; Jaoquard— Manufacture of Paper by Machinery— Printing ; lithography— Porcelain in Saxony and France in the Eighteenth Century Glass— Various Industries— Manufacture of Beetroot Sugar— Importance of the Metal Industry —Industrial Activity of the Different Nations— Industrial Associa- tions : Co-operative Societies— Railways— Triumphs of Engineering Art ; the Mont Cenis and St. Gothard Tunnels— The Revolution produced by Railways— The Post; the Universal Postal Union The Telegraph Submarine Telegraphs— Transatlantic Navi- gation— Piercing of the Isthmns of Suez Ferdinand de Lessens -Universal Exhibitions (18*1. 1856, 1862, 1867, 1873, 1876, 1878, 1889) International Commissions ; Propagation of the Metric System— Unity of Coinage Credit ; Institutions of Credit ; Insur- ances— Free Trade and Commercial Treaties Commercial Activity of the Various Nations Results of the Economic Revolution Pro- longation of the Average of Life— Moral Progress ; Publio Educa- tion in France Publio Education in Europe Piogieas of Legisla- tion— Diminution of Grime Provident Institutions Charity; Benevolent Institutions 608

CHAPTER XXL

DIFFUSION OF EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION THBOUOHOUT THE WORLD.

Summary.— Efforts made by European Civilisation to extend over the World— America ; Rnpid Progress of the United States— Govern- ment ; Federal Constitution of the United States ; Freedom of Indi- vidual States— Army ; Navy ; Finance— The North and South ; Slavery ; The War of Secession (1861— 1865)— Abolition of 81avery (1866)— Agricultural Wealth of the United 8tates— Mineral Wealth : Coal, Iron, Petroleum, &c. Californian Gold Mines Industry and Commerce— Railways in the United States— Education— Literature American 8ociety British America ; the Dominion of Canada— The North-West Passage— South America; the Emancipation of the Spanish Colonies— Brazil— The Republics of South and Central America— Mexico Africa : British Possessions— British South Africa France in Africa ; Senegal— Algeria— Tunis— The Exploration of Africa ; the Niger ; the Sources of the Nile— Livingstone ; Southern and Central Africa— Cameron ; Stanley— The Congo Free State— Ogow6 : French Colony of the Congo— Schweinfurth ; Nachtignl—

XX CONTENTS.

PA03

Portuguese Colonies— German Colonies— The Colonial Empire of Holland The English in Australia— European Powers in Asia ; the British Empire in India The Material Condition of India : Popu- lation ; Railways The Productions of India Industry and Art Moral Condition ; Castes ; Religions— The Russian Empire in Asia ; Siberia— The Caucasian Provinces and Turkestan— China—Chinese Civilization ; Population ; Government Religion ; Legislation Agriculture— Industry— Progress of China Japan Government and Progress of Japan— The World as it now is 139

'JO

HKTOBY OF MODERN CIVILIZATION.

BOOK I. THE NEW RELIGION.

CHAPTER I.

OBBIST1ANITY REOBGANIZATION AND FALL OF THE ROMAN

EMPIRE.

Summart : The Preparation for the Advent of Christianity ; the Condition of Religion and Philosophy in the Boman World Unity of the Roman World; the Right of Universal Citizenship— The Christian Religion The Persecutions— The Primitive Organization of the Church: the Catacombs The Apologists : Tertnllian Influence of Christianity The Decadence of the Roman Empire ; its Causes ; the Absence of a Constitution The Power and Rivalry of the Praetorians and the Armies; Civil Wars Invasion of the Barbarians Attempts at Restoration in the Fourth Century ; Diocletian ; the Tetrarchy The Work of Constantino ; the Imperial Power ; the Great Officers— Separation of the Military and Civil Powers Division of the Provinces into Prefectures, Dioceses, &c. —The New Nobility— The Classes— The Curiales— The Inferior Classes ; the Plebs ; Husbandmen Slaves— The Taxes— Constantino and Chris- tianity ; the Edict of Milan (313) Organization of the Church ; Bishop- rics, Archbishoprics, &c. The Council of Nicsea Constantinople The Pagan Reaction under Julian The Heresies ; the Fathers of the Greek Church The Fathers of the Latin Church Hermits and Monks Final Causes of the Fall of the Roman Empire, and of the Success of the In- vasions— What Rome has given to the World The Legacy of Antiquity.

Notes : The Roman Calendar— Basilicas transformed into Churches.

The Preparation far the Advent of Christianity ; the Condition of Religion and Philosophy in the Roman World. Greek and Roman philosophy had vainly sought to solve the problem which vexes the mind of man the problem of whence and whither—

THE HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION.

the problem of his own destiny. After he had exhausted systems and hypotheses nothing remained to man but confused theories about the Supreme Being, Providence, and the soul, with a morality the doctrines of which were accessible to the learned only. The contradictions between the eclectic beliefs of Cicero and the negations of Lucretius, between the hedonism of the Epicureans and the proud self-mastery of the Stoics, increased the scepticism of the multitude. Philosophy had no power to guide or govern the mind and life of man.

Pagan mythology, with its absurd and inconsistent fables, could not satisfy the need of the soul. Its meaningless rites, its sacri- fices with no moral virtue, had contributed not a little to the moral disorder which rendered easy the corruption of the first days of the Empire. Hedonistic materialism, if not formally enunciated, yet at least implied in the doctrine of Epicurus, sanctioned abandon- ment to the passions.

Synchronously with mocking- or intellectual mistrust of the deities of Home and Greece, a host of Oriental rites invaded Borne. " The ignorance into which men had fallen with respect to the' gods," wrote Plutarch, "has formed into two streams, one of which, making its bed in hearts hard as rocks, led to the denial of the gods, while the other, spreading itself over gentle souls as on damp ground, gave rise to an exaggerated fear of the gods." Borne had made herself an asylum for all the divinities of the nations. In Italy temples were erected in honour of Syrian and Egyptian deities, there were mysteries, pompous ceremonies, Chaldean and Phrygian divination, numbers of expiatory sacrifices, even rites of blood and obscenity.

On the other hand, the discussions of the philosophers on the Essence of the Supreme Being, and on his divers manifestations, predisposed men to accept the theories of Christianity. Justin saw in pagan philosophy the dim unconscious reflection of the Divine Word. Plutarch, in his religious treatises, formulated in explicit terms his belief in the unity and eternity of God in God as the creative and preservative energy of the world. He commented upon and approved of the delays of Divine justice.

CHRISTIANITY— FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. 3

The moral unrest of certain philosophers, the need of arriving at the knowledge of the Infinite and of " the beyond," the confusion of systems and of religions, showed that the world was prepared for the advent of a religion which should finally determine these dogmas, should give rest to reason by subordinating it to faith, and should respond to all the feelings of the human heart.

Unity of the Roman World ; the Right of Universal Citizenship. The unity of the Roman world, encircling all other civilized nations, was eminently favourable to the preaching of the Gospel. Through- out its vast extent two languages alone were needed the Latin in the West, the Greek in the East in which to address its citi- ' zens and the army of its officials. From the time of Caracalla (218 a.d.), the right of citizenship was extended to all the pro- vinces : a revolution that passed almost unperceived, so lavishly had the right been bestowed, so little remained to be done to render the assimilation complete, and to make of Home the fatherland of the world.

The world had done with the old municipal egoism, which made the city the fatherland and its walls the horizon of society. All cities were now gathered into union with Home, a result effected partly by the perfect toleration of other religions practised by the Romans, except in cases where it conflicted with what they thought was civi- lized ; for instance, the human sacrifices of the Druids. The older re- ligions and their rivalries were at last reconciled in the Pantheon of Rome. A singular confraternity had succeeded to the savage exclu- sion of deities of neighbouring states, of cities opposing their peculiar gods to the gods of other towns ; all were now willing to adopt a like belief. " Almost at the opposite extremities of the Roman Empire inscriptions have been found. One is Jupiter, Serapis, and Jao ; one Hermes and Anubis." No doubt the Athenians, who had erected an altar even to the " unknown God," paid little attention to the preaching of St. Paul when he announced to them this unknown God. It would cost them but little to acknowledge one more deity, but of the true nature of the God of the Christians they had as a people an imperfect conception ; the might of this religion, at once practical and mystical, uniting God and man with the bonds

THE HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION.

not of the intellect only, but of the heart, soon overshadowed all other religions, and one by one their idols fell before the cross of Jesus Christ.

The Christian Religion. The Gospel,* or good news of God, preached among the Jews in Galilee and JudaBa as the full development of the Mosaic law, the crowning of their Mes- sianic hopes, had been rejected, and the true Messiah, Jesus, had suffered crucifixion at the hands of the Roman Procurator of Judaea, in the reign of Tiberius, but his religion had survived. Preached first to the Jews and in Palestine only, by means of the Hellenistic Jews and proselytes, who were spread through nearly all the great oities and commercial centres of the Roman empire, it came quickly into contact with the Gentile world. The twelve original leaders, men of simple habits with no pretence to science or philosophy, did not foresee this. It was the material wants of the Hellenists of Jerusalem which first led to the introduction of their representatives into the service of the infant Church. The bolder note struck by Stephen (a Greek in name) in his impassioned defence, roused the anger of his judges to fury, and they who plotted the Master's death murdered his first Hellenistic apolo- gist. The unexpected result of this martyrdom was the detach- ment from their own party of their most brilliant champion. Saul, better known under his name as a Roman citizen, Paul (Paulus), passed from the ranks of the persecutors to those of the perse- cuted, from the old to the new religion ; originally a fervent Jew he became an enthusiastic Christian, and the first who thoroughly accepted the new religion's universality ; the first

* Of the twenty -seven books which compose the New Testament, the earliest in the state in which we httve them are probably the Epistles of St. Paul, written before his imprisonment, and the Epistle of St. James ; the date of the two.earliest Gospels cannot be fixed with certainty. Then come the Epistles written by St. Paul during his firs b imprisonment. About the same time may date the Gospel of St Luke, and the History of the Acts. After his imprisonment must be placed the Epistles of St. Peter and St. Jude, and that of the Hebrews, with St. John as probably the last writer of the Apos- tolic band, with his Gospel and Epistles, which came after his Apocalypse, and closed the Canon of the New Testament. With the exception of the Apocalypse, all these books appear in a list of the books of the New Testa- ment appended to the canons of the Council of Laodicea, held in a.d. 363.

CHRISTIANITY-FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. 5

who saw that it was something more than Hebrew Hel- lenism ; the first who declared the impossibility of confining the religion of Christ by the limits of even the widest Judaism. From the date of the Council of Jerusalem, when the principles first enunciated with hesitation by St. Peter, after the conversion of the first Gentile convert, then boldly put in practice by St. Paul, had been adopted by the elder apostles and by the whole Christian society, Christianity set out on its full mission to conquer the world. From Syria and the Levant it quickly passed through Asia Minor to Macedonia and to Greece, in the reigns of Claudius and Nero. The Roman historians at first expressed loathing of it, a pestilent super- stition (exitiabilis superstitio) Tacitus calls it But this despised seed germinated and sprang up in Rome, and in all the great cities of the East and West. When persecuted the Christians multi- plied the more : a struggle was begun between men armed with faith alone and all the power of the empire ; a struggle in which that power finally succumbed, and with it all its religions and their superstitions. The unity which Christianity accomplished survived the unity of the political empire, and continued when this was destroyed by the barbarians.

Conscience, the family, society, government, all fell under the sway of these new principles. The God of the Christians is indeed a development of the God of the Jews and of Moses. The Bible is the Christians' book; they called it the Old Testament, or Covenant, only because they added to it the New. There was no break in the tra- dition. Christ is but the Greek interpretation of the Hebrew Messiah ; but the doctrine of Monotheism, which the Jews had kept to them- selves with jealous care, was taught to foreigners, to the Gentiles (the nations). It was the God of the family ; the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob ; the God of Moses and of the Tribes ; the God of the Jewish nation before, of the Jewish race after, the Captivity, who was now proclaimed the God, the sole, exclusive God of every race, of all mankind. The Jews, who even before the destruction of Jerusalem had spread themselves in great numbers through all the cities of the East, had begun, though without preaching them, to be less exclusive in the